Command line tools

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Introduction

This page lists the important Proxmox VE and Debian command line tools. All CLI tools have also manual pages.

KVM specific

qm

qm - qemu/kvm manager - see Manual: qm and Qm manual

QEMU Emulator: User Documentation | Monitor Commands

OpenVZ specific

vzps

This utility program can be run on the Node just as the standard Linux ps. For information on the ps utility please consult the corresponding man page, vzps provides certain additional functionality related to monitoring separate Containers running on the Node.

The vzps utility has the following functionality added:

  • The -E CT_ID command line switch can be used to show only the processes running inside the Container with the specified ID.

pvectl

pvectl - vzctl wrapper to manage OpenVZ containers - see Pvectl manual

vzctl

vzctl - utility to control an OpenVZ container - see Vzctl manual

vztop

This utility program can be run on the Node just as the standard Linux top . For information on the top utility please consult the corresponding man page, vztop provides certain additional functionality related to monitoring separate Containers running on the Node.

The vztop utility has the following functionality added:

  • The -E CT_ID command line switch can be used to show only the processes running inside the Container with the ID specified. If -1 is specified as CT_ID, the processes of all running Containers are displayed.
  • The e interactive command (the key pressed while top is running) can be used to show/hide the CTID column, which displays the Container where a particular process is running (0 stands for the Hardware Node itself).
  • The E interactive command can be used to select another Container the processes of which are to be shown. If -1 is specified, the processes of all running Containers are displayed.

vztop - display top CPU processes

 10:28:52  up 31 days, 11:18,  1 user,  load average: 0.07, 0.06, 0.02
197 processes: 196 sleeping, 1 running, 0 zombie, 0 stopped
CPU0 states:   0.2% user   0.1% system    0.0% nice   0.0% iowait  99.2% idle
CPU1 states:   1.3% user   2.1% system    0.0% nice   0.0% iowait  96.1% idle
CPU2 states:   6.3% user   0.1% system    0.0% nice   0.0% iowait  93.1% idle
CPU3 states:   2.0% user   1.0% system    0.0% nice   0.0% iowait  96.4% idle
Mem:  16251688k av, 16032764k used,  218924k free,       0k shrd,  364120k buff
      4448576k active,            10983652k inactive
Swap: 15728632k av,      36k used, 15728596k free                 14170784k cached

  PID USER     PRI  NI  SIZE  RSS SHARE STAT %CPU %MEM   TIME CPU COMMAND
390694 root      20   0  759M 528M  2432 S     6.7  3.3 244:53   1 kvm
566767 root      20   0 40464 8908  5320 S     6.7  0.0   0:54   0 apache2
 7898 root      20   0  181M  34M  4076 S     0.3  0.2  73:12   2 pvestatd
    1 root      20   0 10604  848   744 S     0.0  0.0   0:16   0 init
    2 root      20   0     0    0     0 SW    0.0  0.0   0:00   2 kthreadd
    3 root      RT   0     0    0     0 SW    0.0  0.0   0:00   0 migration/0
    4 root      20   0     0    0     0 SW    0.0  0.0   0:19   0 ksoftirqd/0
    5 root      RT   0     0    0     0 SW    0.0  0.0   0:00   0 migration/0
    6 root      RT   0     0    0     0 SW    0.0  0.0   0:02   0 watchdog/0
    7 root      RT   0     0    0     0 SW    0.0  0.0   0:00   1 migration/1
    8 root      RT   0     0    0     0 SW    0.0  0.0   0:00   1 migration/1
    9 root      20   0     0    0     0 SW    0.0  0.0   0:24   1 ksoftirqd/1
   10 root      RT   0     0    0     0 SW    0.0  0.0   0:01   1 watchdog/1
   11 root      RT   0     0    0     0 SW    0.0  0.0   0:01   2 migration/2
   12 root      RT   0     0    0     0 SW    0.0  0.0   0:00   2 migration/2
   13 root      20   0     0    0     0 SW    0.0  0.0   0:12   2 ksoftirqd/2
   14 root      RT   0     0    0     0 SW    0.0  0.0   0:01   2 watchdog/2
   15 root      RT   0     0    0     0 SW    0.0  0.0   0:07   3 migration/3
..
..

user_beancounters

cat /proc/user_beancounters


Version: 2.5
       uid  resource                     held              maxheld              barrier                limit              failcnt
      101:  kmemsize                 11217945             16650240            243269632            268435456                    0
            lockedpages                     0                  418                65536                65536                    0
            privvmpages                134161               221093  9223372036854775807  9223372036854775807                    0
            shmpages                       16                 3232  9223372036854775807  9223372036854775807                    0
            dummy                           0                    0                    0                    0                    0
            numproc                        56                   99  9223372036854775807  9223372036854775807                    0
            physpages                   96245               122946                    0               131072                    0
            vmguarpages                     0                    0                    0  9223372036854775807                    0
            oomguarpages                53689                78279                    0  9223372036854775807                    0
            numtcpsock                     49                   82  9223372036854775807  9223372036854775807                    0
            numflock                        8                   20  9223372036854775807  9223372036854775807                    0
            numpty                          0                    6  9223372036854775807  9223372036854775807                    0
            numsiginfo                      0                   33  9223372036854775807  9223372036854775807                    0
            tcpsndbuf                  927856              1619344  9223372036854775807  9223372036854775807                    0
            tcprcvbuf                  802816              1343488  9223372036854775807  9223372036854775807                    0
            othersockbuf               152592               481248  9223372036854775807  9223372036854775807                    0
            dgramrcvbuf                     0                 4624  9223372036854775807  9223372036854775807                    0
            numothersock                  124                  152  9223372036854775807  9223372036854775807                    0
            dcachesize                6032652             12378728            121634816            134217728                    0
            numfile                       629                  915  9223372036854775807  9223372036854775807                    0
            dummy                           0                    0                    0                    0                    0
            dummy                           0                    0                    0                    0                    0
            dummy                           0                    0                    0                    0                    0
            numiptent                      20                   20  9223372036854775807  9223372036854775807                    0
        0:  kmemsize                 34634728             65306624  9223372036854775807  9223372036854775807                    0
            lockedpages                  1360                 6721  9223372036854775807  9223372036854775807                    0
            privvmpages                317475               507560  9223372036854775807  9223372036854775807                    0
            shmpages                     4738                 9645  9223372036854775807  9223372036854775807                    0
            dummy                           0                    0  9223372036854775807  9223372036854775807                    0
            numproc                       190                  220  9223372036854775807  9223372036854775807                    0
            physpages                 3769163              3867750  9223372036854775807  9223372036854775807                    0
            vmguarpages                     0                    0                    0                    0                    0
            oomguarpages               182160               205746  9223372036854775807  9223372036854775807                    0
            numtcpsock                     12                   29  9223372036854775807  9223372036854775807                    0
            numflock                        9                   13  9223372036854775807  9223372036854775807                    0
            numpty                          4                   12  9223372036854775807  9223372036854775807                    0
            numsiginfo                      3                   84  9223372036854775807  9223372036854775807                    0
            tcpsndbuf                  249512              1760544  9223372036854775807  9223372036854775807                    0
            tcprcvbuf                  198920              1142000  9223372036854775807  9223372036854775807                    0
            othersockbuf               233512               276832  9223372036854775807  9223372036854775807                    0
            dgramrcvbuf                     0                 2576  9223372036854775807  9223372036854775807                    0
            numothersock                  179                  193  9223372036854775807  9223372036854775807                    0
            dcachesize               18688898             47058779  9223372036854775807  9223372036854775807                    0
            numfile                      1141                 1410  9223372036854775807  9223372036854775807                    0
            dummy                           0                    0  9223372036854775807  9223372036854775807                    0
            dummy                           0                    0  9223372036854775807  9223372036854775807                    0
            dummy                           0                    0  9223372036854775807  9223372036854775807                    0
            numiptent                      20                   20  9223372036854775807  9223372036854775807                    0

vzlist

example:
vzlist
      CTID      NPROC STATUS    IP_ADDR         HOSTNAME
       101         26 running   -               localhost.fantinibakery.com
       102        121 running   10.100.100.18   mediawiki.fantinibakery.com
       114         49 running   -               fbc14.fantinibakery.com

From PVE 3.0 onwards, the display will be:

vzlist
      CTID      NPROC STATUS    IP_ADDR         HOSTNAME
       101         26 running   -               localhost
       102        121 running   10.100.100.18   mediawiki
       114         49 running   -               fbc14
  • The fields for (-o option) selective display are: ctid, nproc, status, ip, hostname.
  • All are case sensitive and are used with the options -H (no header) and -o [field1, field2, ...]
  • The binary is at: /usr/sbin/vzlist
  • by default, vzlist lists only RUNNING CTs, stopped ones won't appear in its output (qm list for VMs, instead, lists also stopped ones)

USAGE

Usage: vzlist [-a | -S] [-n] [-H] [-o field[,field...] | -1] [-s [-]field]
        [-h pattern] [-N pattern] [-d pattern] [CTID [CTID ...]]
 vzlist -L | --list

Options:
 -a, --all  list all containers
 -S, --stopped  list stopped containers
 -n, --name   display containers' names
 -H, --no-header   suppress columns header
 -t, --no-trim  do not trim long values
 -j, --json   output in JSON format
 -o, --output  output only specified fields
 -1    synonym for -H -octid
 -s, --sort   sort by the specified field
    ('-field' to reverse sort order)
 -h, --hostname   filter CTs by hostname pattern
 -N, --name_filter filter CTs by name pattern
 -d, --description filter CTs by description pattern
 -L, --list   get possible field names

Backup

vzdump

vzdump - backup utility for virtual machine - see Vzdump manual | Archive

vzrestore

vzrestore - restore OpenVZ vzdump backups - see Vzrestore manual | Archive

qmrestore

qmrestore - restore KVM vzdump backups - see Qmrestore manual | Archive

Cluster management

pvecm

PVE Cluster Manager

USAGE

pvecm <COMMAND> [ARGS] [OPTIONS]

  • pvecm help [<cmd>] [OPTIONS]
  • pvecm add <hostname> [OPTIONS]
  • pvecm addnode <node> [OPTIONS]
  • pvecm create <clustername> [OPTIONS]
  • pvecm delnode <node>
  • pvecm expected <expected>
  • pvecm keygen <filename>
  • pvecm nodes
  • pvecm status
  • pvecm updatecerts [OPTIONS]

Software version check

pveversion

Proxmox VE version info - Print version information for Proxmox VE packages.

USAGE

pveversion [--verbose]

  • without any argument shows the version of pve-manager, something like:
pve-manager/1.5/4660

or

pve-manager/3.0/957f0862
  • with -v argument it shows a list of programs versions related to pve, like:
pve-manager: 1.5-7 (pve-manager/1.5/4660)
running kernel: 2.6.18-2-pve
proxmox-ve-2.6.18: 1.5-5
pve-kernel-2.6.18-2-pve: 2.6.18-5
pve-kernel-2.6.18-1-pve: 2.6.18-4
qemu-server: 1.1-11
pve-firmware: 1.0-3
libpve-storage-perl: 1.0-10
vncterm: 0.9-2
vzctl: 3.0.23-1pve8
vzdump: 1.2-5
vzprocps: 2.0.11-1dso2
vzquota: 3.0.11-1
pve-qemu-kvm-2.6.18: 0.9.1-5

or

pve-manager: 3.0-23 (pve-manager/3.0/957f0862)
running kernel: 2.6.32-20-pve
proxmox-ve-2.6.32: 3.0-100
pve-kernel-2.6.32-20-pve: 2.6.32-100
lvm2: 2.02.95-pve3
clvm: 2.02.95-pve3
corosync-pve: 1.4.5-1
openais-pve: 1.1.4-3
libqb0: 0.11.1-2
redhat-cluster-pve: 3.2.0-2
resource-agents-pve: 3.9.2-4
fence-agents-pve: 4.0.0-1
pve-cluster: 3.0-4
qemu-server: 3.0-20
pve-firmware: 1.0-22
libpve-common-perl: 3.0-4
libpve-access-control: 3.0-4
libpve-storage-perl: 3.0-8
vncterm: 1.1-4
vzctl: 4.0-1pve3
vzprocps: 2.0.11-2
vzquota: 3.1-2
pve-qemu-kvm: 1.4-13
ksm-control-daemon: 1.1-1

aptitude

Standard Debian package update tool

LVM

Most of the commands in LVM are very similar to each other. Each valid command is preceded by one of the following:

  • Physical Volume = pv
  • Volume Group = vg
  • Logical Volume = lv

USAGE


Physical Volume Volume Group Logical Volume
LVM PV VG LV
s No Yes

Yes

Yes
display No Yes Yes Yes
create No Yes Yes Yes
rename No No Yes Yes
change Yes Yes Yes Yes
move No Yes Yes No
extend No No Yes Yes
reduce No No Yes Yes
resize No Yes No Yes
split No No Yes No
merge No No Yes No
convert No No Yes Yes
import No No Yes No
export No No Yes No
importclone No No Yes No
cfgbackup No No Yes No
cfgrestore No No Yes No
ck No Yes Yes No
scan diskscan Yes Yes Yes
mknodes No No Yes No
remove No Yes Yes Yes
dump Yes No No No


iSCSI

DRBD

See DRBD

Debian Appliance Builder

dab

See Debian Appliance Builder

Other useful tools

pveperf

Simple host performance test.

(from man page)

USAGE

pveperf [PATH]

DESCRIPTION

Tries to gather some CPU/Hardisk performance data on the hardisk mounted at PATH (/ is used as default)

It dumps on the terminal:

  • CPU BOGOMIPS: bogomips sum of all CPUs
  • REGEX/SECOND: regular expressions per second (perl performance test), should be above 300000
  • HD SIZE: harddisk size
  • BUFFERED READS: simple HD read test. Modern HDs should reach at least 40 MB/sec
  • AVERAGE SEEK TIME: tests average seek time. Fast SCSI HDs reach values < 8 milliseconds. Common IDE/SATA disks get values from 15 to 20 ms.
  • FSYNCS/SECOND: value should be greater than 200 (you should enable "write back" cache mode on you RAID controller - needs a battery backed cache (BBWC)).
  • DNS EXT: average time to resolve an external DNS name
  • DNS INT: average time to resolve a local DNS name

Note: this command may require root privileges (or sudo) to run, otherwise you get an error after "HD SIZE" value, like: <<sh: /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches: Permission denied unable to open HD at /usr/bin/pveperf line 149.>>

Example output

CPU BOGOMIPS:      26341.80
REGEX/SECOND:      1554770
HD SIZE:           94.49 GB (/dev/mapper/pve-root)
BUFFERED READS:    49.83 MB/sec
AVERAGE SEEK TIME: 14.16 ms
FSYNCS/SECOND:     1060.47
DNS EXT:           314.58 ms
DNS INT:           236.94 ms (mypve.com)

pvesubscription

For managing a node's subscription key

Usage

To set the key use:

  • pvesubscription set <key>

The following updates the subscription status

  • pvesubscription update -force

To print subscription status use

  • pvesubscription get
USAGE: pvesubscription <COMMAND> [ARGS] [OPTIONS]
       pvesubscription get 
       pvesubscription set <key>
       pvesubscription update  [OPTIONS]

       pvesubscription help [<cmd>] [OPTIONS]

Third party CLI Tools