Difference between revisions of "Debian Appliance Builder"

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= Introduction =
+
== Introduction ==
  
Creating high quality appliances is a difficult task and requires deep knowledge of the underlying operating system. So we created the 'Debian Appliance Builder' to simplify that task. 'dab' is a script to automate the creation of OpenVZ appliances. It is basically a rewrite of debootstrap in perl, but uses OpenVZ instead of chroot and generates OpenVZ templates. Another difference is that it supports multi-stage building of templates. That way you can execute arbitrary scripts between package installation steps to accomplish what you want.  
+
Creating high quality appliances is a difficult task and requires deep knowledge of the underlying operating system. So we created the 'Debian Appliance Builder' to simplify that task. 'dab' is a script to automate the creation of OpenVZ appliances. It is basically a rewrite of debootstrap in perl, but uses OpenVZ instead of chroot and generates OpenVZ and now also LXC templates. Another difference is that it supports multi-stage building of templates. That way you can execute arbitrary scripts between package installation steps to accomplish what you want.  
  
 
Furthermore, some common tasks are fully automated - like setting up a database server (mysql or postgres). To accomplish minimal template creation time, packages are cached to a local directory, so you do not need a local Debian mirror (although this would speed up the first run). All generated templates includes an appliance description file. Those can be used to build appliance repositories.  
 
Furthermore, some common tasks are fully automated - like setting up a database server (mysql or postgres). To accomplish minimal template creation time, packages are cached to a local directory, so you do not need a local Debian mirror (although this would speed up the first run). All generated templates includes an appliance description file. Those can be used to build appliance repositories.  
  
'dab' is licensed under GPLv2 (Open source).  
+
'dab' is licensed under GPLv2 (Open source).
  
== Main features ==
+
The version of this page having the OpenVZ DAB Manual is [http://pve.proxmox.com/mediawiki/index.php?title=Debian_Appliance_Builder&oldid=7718 here] | [[Media:Debian_Appliance_Builder_-_OpenVZ_2015-10-22.zip|here]] | [http://web.archive.org/web/20150912221447/http://pve.proxmox.com/wiki/Pvectl_manual Pvectl manual] | [http://web.archive.org/web/20150912222146/http://pve.proxmox.com/wiki/Qm_manual Qm Manual] | [http://web.archive.org/web/20150912221208/http://pve.proxmox.com/wiki/Vzctl_manual Vzctl Manual]
 +
 
 +
== Main features ==
  
 
*Fully automated build process with standard 'make' scripts  
 
*Fully automated build process with standard 'make' scripts  
Line 15: Line 17:
 
*Simplifies various tasks like database installation  
 
*Simplifies various tasks like database installation  
 
*Appliances can be certified and integrated into the Proxmox VE download directory  
 
*Appliances can be certified and integrated into the Proxmox VE download directory  
*Supports Debian 5, 6 and 7 based appliances  
+
*Supports Debian 5, 6, 7 and 8 based appliances  
 
*Generates 32 or 64 bit appliances  
 
*Generates 32 or 64 bit appliances  
 
*Automatic dependency resolution
 
*Automatic dependency resolution
  
== Target audience ==
+
== Target audience ==
  
 
'dab' is an easy way for software vendors and open source project to package their product into a "ready-to-run" appliance. Appliances can be published into the Proxmox VE appliance download directory to reach the target customer. See [[Download templates (Video)]].  
 
'dab' is an easy way for software vendors and open source project to package their product into a "ready-to-run" appliance. Appliances can be published into the Proxmox VE appliance download directory to reach the target customer. See [[Download templates (Video)]].  
  
In order to work with 'dab', basic Linux knowledge is needed.  
+
In order to work with 'dab', basic Linux knowledge is needed.
 +
 
 +
== DAB for LXC in PVE 4+ ==
 +
[http://forum.proxmox.com/threads/23541-DAB-for-LXC-in-PVE-4 DAB can now be used to create LXC templates] where the SSH keys are regenerated at creation / cloning time.
 +
 
 +
== Updates to DAB ==
 +
DAB is developed in the Git Repo at:
 +
https://git.proxmox.com/?p=dab.git;a=summary
 +
 
 +
The DAB binary is located at:
 +
/usr/share/perl5/PVE/DAB.pm
 +
 
 +
An [[Media:Unofficial_DAB_for_PVE3.zip|unofficial backported DAB for PVE 3.x]] is [http://forum.proxmox.com/threads/23541-DAB-for-LXC-in-PVE-4?p=117985#post117985 discussed here].
 +
 
 +
OpenVZ '''conf''' directory in PVE 1.x is at <tt>/etc/vz/conf</tt> whilst in PVE 3 it is in <tt>/etc/pve/openvz/</tt> and is set in '''DAB.pm''' as my <tt>$cfgdir = "/etc/vz/conf";</tt> or my <tt>$cfgdir = "/etc/pve/openvz";</tt> around line 312.
  
= Installation =
+
== Installation ==
  
 
The script needs to be run as root, so it is not recommended to start it on a production machine with running containers.  
 
The script needs to be run as root, so it is not recommended to start it on a production machine with running containers.  
  
== System requirements ==
+
== System requirements ==
  
 
Prepare your operating system - you can install 'dab' on the following operating systems:  
 
Prepare your operating system - you can install 'dab' on the following operating systems:  
Line 38: Line 54:
 
*Debian 64/Ubuntu 64 with OpenVZ Kernel (not tested)
 
*Debian 64/Ubuntu 64 with OpenVZ Kernel (not tested)
  
== 'dab' installation ==
+
== 'dab' installation ==
  
 
Log into Proxmox VE, and install 'dab' using apt:  
 
Log into Proxmox VE, and install 'dab' using apt:  
Line 44: Line 60:
 
Or download and install it manually:  
 
Or download and install it manually:  
 
<pre>wget http://download.proxmox.com/debian/dists/squeeze/pve/binary-amd64/dab_1.2-3_all.deb</pre>
 
<pre>wget http://download.proxmox.com/debian/dists/squeeze/pve/binary-amd64/dab_1.2-3_all.deb</pre>
 +
The bleeding edge known to work and is available at:
 +
<pre>wget http://download.proxmox.com/debian/dists/squeeze/pvetest/binary-amd64/dab_1.2-4_all.deb</pre>
 +
Both <tt>ftp://</tt> and <tt>http://</tt> work for the '''wget''' URLs above.
  
== 'dab' sample templates ==
+
== 'dab' sample templates ==
  
 
Check for current examples: Latest build files: https://git.proxmox.com/?p=dab-pve-appliances.git;a=summary  
 
Check for current examples: Latest build files: https://git.proxmox.com/?p=dab-pve-appliances.git;a=summary  
Line 54: Line 73:
 
<pre>tar -zxvf dab-pve-appliances_2011-09-13.tar.gz</pre>
 
<pre>tar -zxvf dab-pve-appliances_2011-09-13.tar.gz</pre>
  
== 'dab' manual pages  ==
+
== Build Virtual Appliances ==
<pre>dab(1)                User Contributed Perl Documentation              dab(1)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
NAME
 
      dab - Debian OpenVZ Appliance Builder
 
 
 
SYNOPSIS
 
      dab command [OPTIONS]
 
      dab init
 
          Downloads the package descriptions form the repository. Also
 
          truncates the "logfile".
 
 
 
      dab bootstrap
 
          Bootstrap a debian system and allocate a temporary container (we
 
          use IDs 90000 and above).
 
 
 
          --exim
 
              Use exim as MTA (we use postfix by default)
 
 
 
          --minimal
 
              Do not install standard packages.
 
 
 
      dab veid
 
          Print used container ID.
 
 
 
      dab basedir
 
          Print container private directory.
 
 
 
      dab packagefile
 
          Print the appliance file name.
 
 
 
      dab install pkg ...
 
          Install one or more packages. pkg can also refer to a file named
 
          "xyz.pkglist" which contains a list of packages. All dependencies
 
          are automatically installed.
 
 
 
      dab unpack pkg ...
 
          Unpack one or more packages. pkg can also refer to a file named
 
          "xyz.pkglist" which contains a list of packages. All dependencies
 
          are automatically unpacked.
 
 
 
      dab exec CMD ARGS
 
          Executes command CMD inside the container.
 
 
 
      dab enter
 
          Calls "vzctl enter CTID" - this is for debugging only.
 
 
 
      dab task mysql
 
          Install a mysql database server. During appliance generation we use
 
          "admin" as mysql root password (also stored in /root/.my.cnf).
 
 
 
          --password=XXX
 
              Specify the mysql root password. The special value "random" can
 
              be use to generate a random root password when the appliance is
 
              started first time (stored in /root/.my.cnf)
 
 
 
          --start
 
              Start the mysql server (if you want to execute sql commands
 
              during appliance generation).
 
 
 
      dab task postgres
 
          Install a postgres database server.
 
 
 
          --version=XXX
 
              Select Postgres version. Posible values are 7.4, 8.1 and 8.3
 
              (depends on the selected suite).
 
 
 
          --start
 
              Start the postgres server (if you want to execute sql commands
 
              during appliance generation).
 
 
 
      dab task php
 
          Install php5.
 
 
 
          --memlimit=i
 
              Set the php memory_limit.
 
 
 
      dab finalize
 
          Cleanup everything inside the container and generate the final
 
          appliance package.
 
 
 
          --keepmycnf
 
              Do not delete file "/root/.my.cfg" (mysql).
 
 
 
      dab list
 
          List installed packages.
 
 
 
          --verbose
 
              Also print package versions.
 
 
 
      dab clean
 
          Remove all temporary file and destroy the used OpenVZ container.
 
 
 
      dab dist-clean
 
          Like clean, but also removes the package cache (except when you
 
          specified your own cache directory in the config file)
 
 
 
DESCRIPTION
 
      dab is a script to automate the creation of OpenVZ appliances. It is
 
      basically a rewrite of debootstrap in perl, but uses OpenVZ instead of
 
      chroot and generates OpenVZ templates. Another difference is that it
 
      supports multi-stage building of templates. That way you can execute
 
      arbitrary scripts between to accomplish what you want.
 
 
 
      Furthermore some common tasks are fully automated, like setting up a
 
      database server (mysql or postgres).
 
 
 
      To accomplish minimal template creation time, packages are cached to a
 
      local directory, so you do not need a local debian mirror (although
 
      this would speed up the first run).
 
 
 
      See http://pve.proxmox.com/wiki/Debian_Appliance_Builder for examples.
 
 
 
      This script need to be run as root, so it is not recommended to start
 
      it on a production machine with running container. Proxmox VE
 
      (http://pve.proxmox.com) is the preferred environment, because it is
 
      able to log the console output when a container starts. You wont be
 
      able to detect errors during container startup when running on standard
 
      OpenVZ. So many people run Proxmox VE inside a KVM or VMWare 64bit
 
      virtual machine to build appliances.
 
 
 
      All generated templates includes an appliance description file. Those
 
      can be used to build appliance repositories.
 
 
 
CONFIGURATION
 
      Configuration is read from the file "dab.conf" inside the current
 
      working directory. The files contains key value pairs, separated by
 
      colon.
 
 
 
      Suite: etch|lenny|squeeze|hardy|intrepid|jaunty
 
        The Debian or Ubuntu suite.
 
 
 
      Source: URL [components]
 
        Defines a source location. By default we use the following for
 
        debian:
 
 
 
          Source: http://ftp.debian.org/debian SUITE main contrib
 
          Source: http://security.debian.org SUITE/updates main contrib
 
 
 
        Note: SUITE is a variable and will be substituted.
 
 
 
        There are also reasonable defaults for Ubuntu. If you do not specify
 
        any source the defaults are used.
 
 
 
      Depends: dependencies
 
        Debian like package dependencies. This can be used to make sure that
 
        speific package versions are available.
 
 
 
      CacheDir: path
 
        Allows you to specify the directory where downloaded packages are
 
        cached.
 
 
 
      Mirror: SRCURL => DSTURL
 
        Define a mirror location. for example:
 
 
 
          Mirror: http://ftp.debian.org/debian => ftp://mirror/debian
 
 
 
      All other settings in this files are also included into the appliance
 
      description file.
 
 
 
      Name: name
 
        The name of the appliance.
 
 
 
        Appliance names must consist only of lower case letters (a-z), digits
 
        (0-9), plus (+) and minus (-) signs, and periods (.). They must be at
 
        least two characters long and must start with an alphanumeric
 
        character.
 
 
 
      Architecture: i386|amd64
 
        Target architecture.
 
 
 
      Version: upstream_version[-build_revision]
 
        The version number of an appliance.
 
 
 
        =item: Section: section
 
 
 
        This field specifies an application area into which the appliance has
 
        been classified. Currently we use the following section names:
 
        system, admin, www
 
 
 
      Maintainer: name <email>
 
        The appliance maintainer’s name and email address. The name should
 
        come first, then the email address inside angle brackets <> (in
 
        RFC822 format).
 
 
 
      Infopage: URL
 
        Link to web page containing more informations about this appliance.
 
 
 
      Description: single line synopsis
 
          extended description over several lines (indended by space) may follow.
 
 
 
Appliance description file
 
      All generated templates includes an appliance description file called
 
 
 
        /etc/appliance.info
 
 
 
      this is the first file inside the tar archive. That way it can be
 
      easily exctracted without scanning the whole archive. The file itself
 
      contains informations like a debian "control" file. It can be used to
 
      build appliance repositories.
 
 
 
      Most fields are directly copied from the configuration file "dab.conf".
 
 
 
      Additionally there are some auto-generated files:
 
 
 
      Installed-Size: bytes
 
          It gives the total amount of disk space required to install the
 
          named appliance. The disk space is represented in megabytes as a
 
          simple decimal number.
 
 
 
      Type: type
 
          This is always "openvz".
 
 
 
      OS: [debian-4.0|debian-5.0|ubuntu-8.0]
 
          Operation system.
 
 
 
      Appliance repositories usually add additional fields:
 
 
 
      md5sum: md5sum
 
          MD5 checksum
 
 
 
FILES
 
      The following files are created inside your working directory:
 
 
 
        dab.conf          appliance configuration file
 
 
 
        logfile          contains installation logs
 
 
 
        .veid            stores the used container ID
 
 
 
        cache/*          default package cache directory
 
 
 
        info/*            package information cache
 
 
 
AUTHOR
 
      Dietmar Maurer <dietmar@proxmox.com>
 
 
 
      Many thanks to Proxmox Server Solutions (www.proxmox.com) for
 
      sponsoring this work.
 
 
 
COPYRIGHT AND DISCLAIMER
 
      Copyright (C) 2007-2009 Proxmox Server Solutions GmbH
 
 
 
      Copyright: dab is under GNU GPL, the GNU General Public License.
 
 
 
      This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
 
      under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the
 
      Free Software Foundation; version 2 dated June, 1991.
 
 
 
      This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
 
      WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
 
      MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU
 
      General Public License for more details.
 
 
 
      You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along
 
      with this program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
 
      51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301, USA.
 
 
 
POD ERRORS
 
      Hey! The above document had some coding errors, which are explained
 
      below:
 
 
 
      Around line 382:
 
          =back without =over
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1.1                              2011-05-09                            dab(1)
 
 
 
</pre>
 
 
 
= Build Virtual Appliances =
 
  
 
We published several examples to show how to work with 'dab'. To start, just build a first OS template based on our examples. If you understand the basics, you can start customizing your own appliance (based on a standard OS template).  
 
We published several examples to show how to work with 'dab'. To start, just build a first OS template based on our examples. If you understand the basics, you can start customizing your own appliance (based on a standard OS template).  
  
Basic recommendations:
+
=== Basic recommendations ===
  
 
*Choose the best suitable base OS (squeeze)  
 
*Choose the best suitable base OS (squeeze)  
Line 340: Line 86:
 
*Define the update procedure for users running the appliance in production: if you use Debian packages, update is easy (apt-get update)  
 
*Define the update procedure for users running the appliance in production: if you use Debian packages, update is easy (apt-get update)  
 
*Contact the Proxmox support team for help [http://forum.proxmox.com/ Proxmox Support Forum]  
 
*Contact the Proxmox support team for help [http://forum.proxmox.com/ Proxmox Support Forum]  
*And finally: Get certified! See [[Certification Overview]]
 
  
 
== Debian 6 Standard (Squeeze, i386)  ==
 
== Debian 6 Standard (Squeeze, i386)  ==
Line 401: Line 146:
  
 
== Other OS sample Appliances  ==
 
== Other OS sample Appliances  ==
These example OS templates are included in the [http://download.proxmox.com/sources/dab-pve-appliances_2011-09-13.tar.gz dab-pve-appliances]   
+
These example OS templates are included in the [https://git.proxmox.com/?p=dab-pve-appliances.git;a=summary dab-pve-appliances]   
  
*[[Debian 6.0 Standard]] (i386)
+
You can find descriptions of available Virtual Appliances [[:Category: Virtual Appliances|here]].
*Debian 6 Standard (amd64)
 
  
== Sample Application Appliances  ==
+
== Get support ==
  
These example application templates are included in the [http://download.proxmox.com/sources/dab-pve-appliances_2011-09-13.tar.gz dab-pve-appliances] 
+
[[Get support]] including commercial support offering concerning 'dab'.
 
 
*[[Drupal]] (Debian Squeeze, i386)
 
*[[MediaWiki]] (Debian Squeeze, i386)
 
*[[Joomla!]] (Debian Squeeze, i386)
 
*[[Wordpress]] (Debian Squeeze, i386)
 
*[[SugarCRM]] (Debian Squeeze, i386)
 
*[[RT Request Tracker]] (Debian Squeeze, i386)
 
 
 
= Howto certify a Virtual Appliance  =
 
 
 
See [[Certification Overview]]  
 
  
= Get support  =
+
== Related Forum Posts ==
 
+
* [http://forum.proxmox.com/threads/1919-Makefile-dab-template ATUIN's generic DAB File Template]
[[Get support]] including commercial support offering concerning 'dab'.
+
* [http://forum.proxmox.com/threads/19894-Mods-to-Updated-DAB-pm Oct 2014 mods to DAB.pm] based on the [https://git.proxmox.com/?p=dab.git;a=summary DAB Git Repo] - [[Media:DAB_127_2014-10-02.zip|Cache]]
  
[[Category:Virtual_Appliances]] [[Category:HOWTO]]
+
[[Category:Virtual Appliances]] [[Category:HOWTO]]

Latest revision as of 15:07, 16 November 2020

Introduction

Creating high quality appliances is a difficult task and requires deep knowledge of the underlying operating system. So we created the 'Debian Appliance Builder' to simplify that task. 'dab' is a script to automate the creation of OpenVZ appliances. It is basically a rewrite of debootstrap in perl, but uses OpenVZ instead of chroot and generates OpenVZ and now also LXC templates. Another difference is that it supports multi-stage building of templates. That way you can execute arbitrary scripts between package installation steps to accomplish what you want.

Furthermore, some common tasks are fully automated - like setting up a database server (mysql or postgres). To accomplish minimal template creation time, packages are cached to a local directory, so you do not need a local Debian mirror (although this would speed up the first run). All generated templates includes an appliance description file. Those can be used to build appliance repositories.

'dab' is licensed under GPLv2 (Open source).

The version of this page having the OpenVZ DAB Manual is here | here | Pvectl manual | Qm Manual | Vzctl Manual

Main features

  • Fully automated build process with standard 'make' scripts
  • Local package cache
  • Multi-stage build process
  • Creates and includes appliance description files
  • Simplifies various tasks like database installation
  • Appliances can be certified and integrated into the Proxmox VE download directory
  • Supports Debian 5, 6, 7 and 8 based appliances
  • Generates 32 or 64 bit appliances
  • Automatic dependency resolution

Target audience

'dab' is an easy way for software vendors and open source project to package their product into a "ready-to-run" appliance. Appliances can be published into the Proxmox VE appliance download directory to reach the target customer. See Download templates (Video).

In order to work with 'dab', basic Linux knowledge is needed.

DAB for LXC in PVE 4+

DAB can now be used to create LXC templates where the SSH keys are regenerated at creation / cloning time.

Updates to DAB

DAB is developed in the Git Repo at:

https://git.proxmox.com/?p=dab.git;a=summary

The DAB binary is located at:

/usr/share/perl5/PVE/DAB.pm

An unofficial backported DAB for PVE 3.x is discussed here.

OpenVZ conf directory in PVE 1.x is at /etc/vz/conf whilst in PVE 3 it is in /etc/pve/openvz/ and is set in DAB.pm as my $cfgdir = "/etc/vz/conf"; or my $cfgdir = "/etc/pve/openvz"; around line 312.

Installation

The script needs to be run as root, so it is not recommended to start it on a production machine with running containers.

System requirements

Prepare your operating system - you can install 'dab' on the following operating systems:

  • Proxmox VE (fastest)
  • Proxmox VE inside Proxmox VE (KVM) - (most comfortable)
  • Proxmox VE inside VMWare/XEN 64bit virtual machine
  • Debian 64/Ubuntu 64 with OpenVZ Kernel (not tested)

'dab' installation

Log into Proxmox VE, and install 'dab' using apt:

apt-get install dab

Or download and install it manually:

wget http://download.proxmox.com/debian/dists/squeeze/pve/binary-amd64/dab_1.2-3_all.deb

The bleeding edge known to work and is available at:

wget http://download.proxmox.com/debian/dists/squeeze/pvetest/binary-amd64/dab_1.2-4_all.deb

Both ftp:// and http:// work for the wget URLs above.

'dab' sample templates

Check for current examples: Latest build files: https://git.proxmox.com/?p=dab-pve-appliances.git;a=summary

Older examples are on ftp://download.proxmox.com/sources/

wget http://download.proxmox.com/sources/dab-pve-appliances_2011-09-13.tar.gz

Unpack with tar:

tar -zxvf dab-pve-appliances_2011-09-13.tar.gz

Build Virtual Appliances

We published several examples to show how to work with 'dab'. To start, just build a first OS template based on our examples. If you understand the basics, you can start customizing your own appliance (based on a standard OS template).

Basic recommendations

  • Choose the best suitable base OS (squeeze)
  • Choose the right architecture (i383 or amd64)
  • Always try to use deb packages for applications (instead of tar.gz files)
  • Pre-configure applications as much as possible (PHP, Apache, MySql, Postgresql, etc.) - based on the recommendations of the software
  • Use unique keys and passwords (auto generate them during first start-up)
  • Define the update procedure for users running the appliance in production: if you use Debian packages, update is easy (apt-get update)
  • Contact the Proxmox support team for help Proxmox Support Forum

Debian 6 Standard (Squeeze, i386)

This example shows the basic steps when creating appliances with 'dab'. First step is to create a temporary working directory and cd into that directory (or just cd into the previously un-tared examples):

mkdir debian-6.0-standard
cd debian-6.0-standard

Now you need to create/edit the configuration file called 'dab.conf':

Suite: lenny
Architecture: i386
Name: debian-6.0-standard
Version: 6.0-1
Section: system
Maintainer: Proxmox Support Team <support@proxmox.com>
Infopage: http://pve.proxmox.com/wiki/Debian_6.0_Standard
Description: Debian 6.0 (standard)
 A small Debian Lenny system including all standard packages.

Next step: Download the available package lists:

dab init

Start the creation process with:

dab bootstrap

Finally build the final appliance package with:

dab finalize

Thats all. Simply upload the final template to your Proxmox VE server (/var/lib/vz/template/cache/) and test what you created. Sure, always check if everything went well before releasing a template. For this purpose all output is logged to a file called 'logfile'.

When finished you may want to cleanup your working directory with:

dab clean

or use 'dist-clean' if you also want to erase the package cache directory:

dab dist-clean


You can automate above steps using make. Simply create a file called 'Makefile' (here is an example):

BASEDIR:=$(shell dab basedir)

all: info/init_ok
        dab bootstrap
        dab finalize

info/init_ok: dab.conf
        dab init
        touch $@

.PHONY: clean
clean:
        dab clean
        rm -f *~

.PHONY: dist-clean
dist-clean:
        dab dist-clean
        rm -f *~

To start template creation you can now simply type:

make

and

make clean

to cleanup the directory.

The Build your first DAB Appliance Template page shows how to practically setup DAB and get along building templates.

Other OS sample Appliances

These example OS templates are included in the dab-pve-appliances

You can find descriptions of available Virtual Appliances here.

Get support

Get support including commercial support offering concerning 'dab'.

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