Difference between revisions of "Debian Appliance Builder"

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= Introduction =
+
== Introduction ==
  
 
Creating high quality appliances is a difficult task and requires deep knowledge of the underlying operating system. So we created the 'Debian Appliance Builder' to simplify that task. 'dab' is a script to automate the creation of OpenVZ appliances. It is basically a rewrite of debootstrap in perl, but uses OpenVZ instead of chroot and generates OpenVZ and now also LXC templates. Another difference is that it supports multi-stage building of templates. That way you can execute arbitrary scripts between package installation steps to accomplish what you want.  
 
Creating high quality appliances is a difficult task and requires deep knowledge of the underlying operating system. So we created the 'Debian Appliance Builder' to simplify that task. 'dab' is a script to automate the creation of OpenVZ appliances. It is basically a rewrite of debootstrap in perl, but uses OpenVZ instead of chroot and generates OpenVZ and now also LXC templates. Another difference is that it supports multi-stage building of templates. That way you can execute arbitrary scripts between package installation steps to accomplish what you want.  
Line 5: Line 5:
 
Furthermore, some common tasks are fully automated - like setting up a database server (mysql or postgres). To accomplish minimal template creation time, packages are cached to a local directory, so you do not need a local Debian mirror (although this would speed up the first run). All generated templates includes an appliance description file. Those can be used to build appliance repositories.  
 
Furthermore, some common tasks are fully automated - like setting up a database server (mysql or postgres). To accomplish minimal template creation time, packages are cached to a local directory, so you do not need a local Debian mirror (although this would speed up the first run). All generated templates includes an appliance description file. Those can be used to build appliance repositories.  
  
'dab' is licensed under GPLv2 (Open source).  
+
'dab' is licensed under GPLv2 (Open source).
  
== Main features ==
+
The version of this page having the OpenVZ DAB Manual is [http://pve.proxmox.com/mediawiki/index.php?title=Debian_Appliance_Builder&oldid=7718 here] | [[Media:Debian_Appliance_Builder_-_OpenVZ_2015-10-22.zip|here]] | [http://web.archive.org/web/20150912221447/http://pve.proxmox.com/wiki/Pvectl_manual Pvectl manual] | [http://web.archive.org/web/20150912222146/http://pve.proxmox.com/wiki/Qm_manual Qm Manual] | [http://web.archive.org/web/20150912221208/http://pve.proxmox.com/wiki/Vzctl_manual Vzctl Manual]
 +
 
 +
== Main features ==
  
 
*Fully automated build process with standard 'make' scripts  
 
*Fully automated build process with standard 'make' scripts  
Line 15: Line 17:
 
*Simplifies various tasks like database installation  
 
*Simplifies various tasks like database installation  
 
*Appliances can be certified and integrated into the Proxmox VE download directory  
 
*Appliances can be certified and integrated into the Proxmox VE download directory  
*Supports Debian 5, 6 and 7 based appliances  
+
*Supports Debian 5, 6, 7 and 8 based appliances  
 
*Generates 32 or 64 bit appliances  
 
*Generates 32 or 64 bit appliances  
 
*Automatic dependency resolution
 
*Automatic dependency resolution
  
== Target audience ==
+
== Target audience ==
  
 
'dab' is an easy way for software vendors and open source project to package their product into a "ready-to-run" appliance. Appliances can be published into the Proxmox VE appliance download directory to reach the target customer. See [[Download templates (Video)]].  
 
'dab' is an easy way for software vendors and open source project to package their product into a "ready-to-run" appliance. Appliances can be published into the Proxmox VE appliance download directory to reach the target customer. See [[Download templates (Video)]].  
Line 39: Line 41:
 
OpenVZ '''conf''' directory in PVE 1.x is at <tt>/etc/vz/conf</tt> whilst in PVE 3 it is in <tt>/etc/pve/openvz/</tt> and is set in '''DAB.pm''' as my <tt>$cfgdir = "/etc/vz/conf";</tt> or my <tt>$cfgdir = "/etc/pve/openvz";</tt> around line 312.
 
OpenVZ '''conf''' directory in PVE 1.x is at <tt>/etc/vz/conf</tt> whilst in PVE 3 it is in <tt>/etc/pve/openvz/</tt> and is set in '''DAB.pm''' as my <tt>$cfgdir = "/etc/vz/conf";</tt> or my <tt>$cfgdir = "/etc/pve/openvz";</tt> around line 312.
  
= Installation =
+
== Installation ==
  
 
The script needs to be run as root, so it is not recommended to start it on a production machine with running containers.  
 
The script needs to be run as root, so it is not recommended to start it on a production machine with running containers.  
  
== System requirements ==
+
== System requirements ==
  
 
Prepare your operating system - you can install 'dab' on the following operating systems:  
 
Prepare your operating system - you can install 'dab' on the following operating systems:  
Line 52: Line 54:
 
*Debian 64/Ubuntu 64 with OpenVZ Kernel (not tested)
 
*Debian 64/Ubuntu 64 with OpenVZ Kernel (not tested)
  
== 'dab' installation ==
+
== 'dab' installation ==
  
 
Log into Proxmox VE, and install 'dab' using apt:  
 
Log into Proxmox VE, and install 'dab' using apt:  
Line 62: Line 64:
 
Both <tt>ftp://</tt> and <tt>http://</tt> work for the '''wget''' URLs above.
 
Both <tt>ftp://</tt> and <tt>http://</tt> work for the '''wget''' URLs above.
  
== 'dab' sample templates ==
+
== 'dab' sample templates ==
  
 
Check for current examples: Latest build files: https://git.proxmox.com/?p=dab-pve-appliances.git;a=summary  
 
Check for current examples: Latest build files: https://git.proxmox.com/?p=dab-pve-appliances.git;a=summary  
Line 71: Line 73:
 
<pre>tar -zxvf dab-pve-appliances_2011-09-13.tar.gz</pre>
 
<pre>tar -zxvf dab-pve-appliances_2011-09-13.tar.gz</pre>
  
== 'dab' manual pages  ==
+
== Build Virtual Appliances ==
<pre>dab(1)                    User Contributed Perl Documentation                    dab(1)
 
 
 
NAME
 
      dab - Debian OpenVZ Appliance Builder
 
 
 
SYNOPSIS
 
      dab command [OPTIONS]
 
      dab init
 
          Downloads the package descriptions form the repository. Also truncates the
 
          "logfile".
 
 
 
      dab bootstrap
 
          Bootstrap a debian system and allocate a temporary container (we use IDs
 
          90000 and above).
 
 
 
          --exim
 
              Use exim as MTA (we use postfix by default)
 
 
 
          --minimal
 
              Do not install standard packages.
 
 
 
      dab veid
 
          Print used container ID.
 
 
 
      dab basedir
 
          Print container private directory.
 
 
 
      dab packagefile
 
          Print the appliance file name.
 
 
 
      dab install pkg ...
 
          Install one or more packages. pkg can also refer to a file named
 
          "xyz.pkglist" which contains a list of packages. All dependencies are
 
          automatically installed.
 
 
 
      dab unpack pkg ...
 
          Unpack one or more packages. pkg can also refer to a file named "xyz.pkglist"
 
          which contains a list of packages. All dependencies are automatically
 
          unpacked.
 
 
 
      dab exec CMD ARGS
 
          Executes command CMD inside the container.
 
 
 
      dab enter
 
          Calls "vzctl enter CTID" - this is for debugging only.
 
 
 
      dab task mysql
 
          Install a mysql database server. During appliance generation we use "admin"
 
          as mysql root password (also stored in /root/.my.cnf).
 
 
 
          --password=XXX
 
              Specify the mysql root password. The special value "random" can be use to
 
              generate a random root password when the appliance is started first time
 
              (stored in /root/.my.cnf)
 
 
 
          --start
 
              Start the mysql server (if you want to execute sql commands during
 
              appliance generation).
 
 
 
      dab task postgres
 
          Install a postgres database server.
 
 
 
          --version=XXX
 
              Select Postgres version. Posible values are 7.4, 8.1 and 8.3 (depends on
 
              the selected suite).
 
 
 
          --start
 
              Start the postgres server (if you want to execute sql commands during
 
              appliance generation).
 
 
 
      dab task php
 
          Install php5.
 
 
 
          --memlimit=i
 
              Set the php memory_limit.
 
 
 
      dab finalize
 
          Cleanup everything inside the container and generate the final appliance
 
          package.
 
 
 
          --keepmycnf
 
              Do not delete file "/root/.my.cfg" (mysql).
 
 
 
      dab list
 
          List installed packages.
 
 
 
          --verbose
 
              Also print package versions.
 
 
 
      dab clean
 
          Remove all temporary file and destroy the used OpenVZ container.
 
 
 
      dab dist-clean
 
          Like clean, but also removes the package cache (except when you specified
 
          your own cache directory in the config file)
 
 
 
DESCRIPTION
 
      dab is a script to automate the creation of OpenVZ appliances. It is basically a
 
      rewrite of debootstrap in perl, but uses OpenVZ instead of chroot and generates
 
      OpenVZ templates. Another difference is that it supports multi-stage building of
 
      templates. That way you can execute arbitrary scripts between to accomplish what
 
      you want.
 
 
 
      Furthermore some common tasks are fully automated, like setting up a database
 
      server (mysql or postgres).
 
 
 
      To accomplish minimal template creation time, packages are cached to a local
 
      directory, so you do not need a local debian mirror (although this would speed up
 
      the first run).
 
 
 
      See http://pve.proxmox.com/wiki/Debian_Appliance_Builder for examples.
 
 
 
      This script need to be run as root, so it is not recommended to start it on a
 
      production machine with running container. Proxmox VE (http://pve.proxmox.com) is
 
      the preferred environment, because it is able to log the console output when a
 
      container starts. You wont be able to detect errors during container startup when
 
      running on standard OpenVZ. So many people run Proxmox VE inside a KVM or VMWare
 
      64bit virtual machine to build appliances.
 
 
 
      All generated templates includes an appliance description file. Those can be used
 
      to build appliance repositories.
 
 
 
CONFIGURATION
 
      Configuration is read from the file "dab.conf" inside the current working
 
      directory. The files contains key value pairs, separated by colon.
 
 
 
      Suite: etch|lenny|squeeze|hardy|intrepid|jaunty
 
        The Debian or Ubuntu suite.
 
 
 
      Source: URL [components]
 
        Defines a source location. By default we use the following for debian:
 
 
 
          Source: http://ftp.debian.org/debian SUITE main contrib
 
          Source: http://security.debian.org SUITE/updates main contrib
 
 
 
        Note: SUITE is a variable and will be substituted.
 
 
 
        There are also reasonable defaults for Ubuntu. If you do not specify any source
 
        the defaults are used.
 
 
 
      Depends: dependencies
 
        Debian like package dependencies. This can be used to make sure that speific
 
        package versions are available.
 
 
 
      CacheDir: path
 
        Allows you to specify the directory where downloaded packages are cached.
 
 
 
      Mirror: SRCURL => DSTURL
 
        Define a mirror location. for example:
 
 
 
          Mirror: http://ftp.debian.org/debian => ftp://mirror/debian
 
 
 
      All other settings in this files are also included into the appliance description
 
      file.
 
 
 
      Name: name
 
        The name of the appliance.
 
 
 
        Appliance names must consist only of lower case letters (a-z), digits (0-9),
 
        plus (+) and minus (-) signs, and periods (.). They must be at least two
 
        characters long and must start with an alphanumeric character.
 
 
 
      Architecture: i386|amd64
 
        Target architecture.
 
 
 
      Version: upstream_version[-build_revision]
 
        The version number of an appliance.
 
 
 
        =item: Section: section
 
 
 
        This field specifies an application area into which the appliance has been
 
        classified. Currently we use the following section names: system, admin, www
 
 
 
      Maintainer: name <email>
 
        The appliance maintainer's name and email address. The name should come first,
 
        then the email address inside angle brackets <> (in RFC822 format).
 
 
 
      Infopage: URL
 
        Link to web page containing more informations about this appliance.
 
 
 
      Description: single line synopsis
 
          extended description over several lines (indended by space) may follow.
 
 
 
Appliance description file
 
      All generated templates includes an appliance description file called
 
 
 
        /etc/appliance.info
 
 
 
      this is the first file inside the tar archive. That way it can be easily
 
      exctracted without scanning the whole archive. The file itself contains
 
      informations like a debian "control" file. It can be used to build appliance
 
      repositories.
 
 
 
      Most fields are directly copied from the configuration file "dab.conf".
 
 
 
      Additionally there are some auto-generated files:
 
 
 
      Installed-Size: bytes
 
          It gives the total amount of disk space required to install the named
 
          appliance. The disk space is represented in megabytes as a simple decimal
 
          number.
 
 
 
      Type: type
 
          This is always "openvz".
 
 
 
      OS: [debian-4.0|debian-5.0|ubuntu-8.0]
 
          Operation system.
 
 
 
      Appliance repositories usually add additional fields:
 
 
 
      md5sum: md5sum
 
          MD5 checksum
 
 
 
FILES
 
      The following files are created inside your working directory:
 
 
 
        dab.conf          appliance configuration file
 
 
 
        logfile          contains installation logs
 
 
 
        .veid            stores the used container ID
 
 
 
        cache/*          default package cache directory
 
 
 
        info/*            package information cache
 
 
 
AUTHOR
 
      Dietmar Maurer <dietmar@proxmox.com>
 
 
 
      Many thanks to Proxmox Server Solutions (www.proxmox.com) for sponsoring this
 
      work.
 
 
 
COPYRIGHT AND DISCLAIMER
 
      Copyright (C) 2007-2012 Proxmox Server Solutions GmbH
 
 
 
      Copyright: dab is under GNU GPL, the GNU General Public License.
 
 
 
      This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the
 
      terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software
 
      Foundation; version 2 dated June, 1991.
 
 
 
      This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY
 
      WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A
 
      PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License for more details.
 
 
 
      You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this
 
      program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin St,
 
      Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301, USA.
 
 
 
1.2                                    2012-12-31                                dab(1)
 
 
 
</pre>
 
 
 
= Build Virtual Appliances =
 
  
 
We published several examples to show how to work with 'dab'. To start, just build a first OS template based on our examples. If you understand the basics, you can start customizing your own appliance (based on a standard OS template).  
 
We published several examples to show how to work with 'dab'. To start, just build a first OS template based on our examples. If you understand the basics, you can start customizing your own appliance (based on a standard OS template).  
  
Basic recommendations:
+
=== Basic recommendations ===
  
 
*Choose the best suitable base OS (squeeze)  
 
*Choose the best suitable base OS (squeeze)  
Line 338: Line 86:
 
*Define the update procedure for users running the appliance in production: if you use Debian packages, update is easy (apt-get update)  
 
*Define the update procedure for users running the appliance in production: if you use Debian packages, update is easy (apt-get update)  
 
*Contact the Proxmox support team for help [http://forum.proxmox.com/ Proxmox Support Forum]  
 
*Contact the Proxmox support team for help [http://forum.proxmox.com/ Proxmox Support Forum]  
*And finally: Get certified! See [[Certification Overview]]
 
  
 
== Debian 6 Standard (Squeeze, i386)  ==
 
== Debian 6 Standard (Squeeze, i386)  ==
Line 399: Line 146:
  
 
== Other OS sample Appliances  ==
 
== Other OS sample Appliances  ==
These example OS templates are included in the [http://download.proxmox.com/sources/dab-pve-appliances_2011-09-13.tar.gz dab-pve-appliances
+
These example OS templates are included in the [https://git.proxmox.com/?p=dab-pve-appliances.git;a=summary dab-pve-appliances]   
 
 
*[[Debian 6.0 Standard]] (i386)
 
*Debian 6 Standard (amd64)
 
 
 
== Sample Application Appliances  ==
 
 
 
These example application templates are included in the [http://download.proxmox.com/sources/dab-pve-appliances_2011-09-13.tar.gz dab-pve-appliances]   
 
 
 
*[[Drupal]] (Debian Squeeze, i386)
 
*[[MediaWiki]] (Debian Squeeze, i386)
 
*[[Joomla!]] (Debian Squeeze, i386)
 
*[[Wordpress]] (Debian Squeeze, i386)
 
*[[SugarCRM]] (Debian Squeeze, i386)
 
*[[RT Request Tracker]] (Debian Squeeze, i386)
 
 
 
= Howto certify a Virtual Appliance  =
 
  
See [[Certification Overview]]  
+
You can find descriptions of available Virtual Appliances [[:Category: Virtual Appliances|here]].
  
= Get support =
+
== Get support ==
  
 
[[Get support]] including commercial support offering concerning 'dab'.  
 
[[Get support]] including commercial support offering concerning 'dab'.  
  
= Related Forum Posts =
+
== Related Forum Posts ==
 
* [http://forum.proxmox.com/threads/1919-Makefile-dab-template ATUIN's generic DAB File Template]
 
* [http://forum.proxmox.com/threads/1919-Makefile-dab-template ATUIN's generic DAB File Template]
 
* [http://forum.proxmox.com/threads/19894-Mods-to-Updated-DAB-pm Oct 2014 mods to DAB.pm] based on the [https://git.proxmox.com/?p=dab.git;a=summary DAB Git Repo] - [[Media:DAB_127_2014-10-02.zip|Cache]]
 
* [http://forum.proxmox.com/threads/19894-Mods-to-Updated-DAB-pm Oct 2014 mods to DAB.pm] based on the [https://git.proxmox.com/?p=dab.git;a=summary DAB Git Repo] - [[Media:DAB_127_2014-10-02.zip|Cache]]
  
[[Category:Virtual_Appliances]] [[Category:HOWTO]]
+
[[Category:Virtual Appliances]] [[Category:HOWTO]]

Latest revision as of 15:07, 16 November 2020

Introduction

Creating high quality appliances is a difficult task and requires deep knowledge of the underlying operating system. So we created the 'Debian Appliance Builder' to simplify that task. 'dab' is a script to automate the creation of OpenVZ appliances. It is basically a rewrite of debootstrap in perl, but uses OpenVZ instead of chroot and generates OpenVZ and now also LXC templates. Another difference is that it supports multi-stage building of templates. That way you can execute arbitrary scripts between package installation steps to accomplish what you want.

Furthermore, some common tasks are fully automated - like setting up a database server (mysql or postgres). To accomplish minimal template creation time, packages are cached to a local directory, so you do not need a local Debian mirror (although this would speed up the first run). All generated templates includes an appliance description file. Those can be used to build appliance repositories.

'dab' is licensed under GPLv2 (Open source).

The version of this page having the OpenVZ DAB Manual is here | here | Pvectl manual | Qm Manual | Vzctl Manual

Main features

  • Fully automated build process with standard 'make' scripts
  • Local package cache
  • Multi-stage build process
  • Creates and includes appliance description files
  • Simplifies various tasks like database installation
  • Appliances can be certified and integrated into the Proxmox VE download directory
  • Supports Debian 5, 6, 7 and 8 based appliances
  • Generates 32 or 64 bit appliances
  • Automatic dependency resolution

Target audience

'dab' is an easy way for software vendors and open source project to package their product into a "ready-to-run" appliance. Appliances can be published into the Proxmox VE appliance download directory to reach the target customer. See Download templates (Video).

In order to work with 'dab', basic Linux knowledge is needed.

DAB for LXC in PVE 4+

DAB can now be used to create LXC templates where the SSH keys are regenerated at creation / cloning time.

Updates to DAB

DAB is developed in the Git Repo at:

https://git.proxmox.com/?p=dab.git;a=summary

The DAB binary is located at:

/usr/share/perl5/PVE/DAB.pm

An unofficial backported DAB for PVE 3.x is discussed here.

OpenVZ conf directory in PVE 1.x is at /etc/vz/conf whilst in PVE 3 it is in /etc/pve/openvz/ and is set in DAB.pm as my $cfgdir = "/etc/vz/conf"; or my $cfgdir = "/etc/pve/openvz"; around line 312.

Installation

The script needs to be run as root, so it is not recommended to start it on a production machine with running containers.

System requirements

Prepare your operating system - you can install 'dab' on the following operating systems:

  • Proxmox VE (fastest)
  • Proxmox VE inside Proxmox VE (KVM) - (most comfortable)
  • Proxmox VE inside VMWare/XEN 64bit virtual machine
  • Debian 64/Ubuntu 64 with OpenVZ Kernel (not tested)

'dab' installation

Log into Proxmox VE, and install 'dab' using apt:

apt-get install dab

Or download and install it manually:

wget http://download.proxmox.com/debian/dists/squeeze/pve/binary-amd64/dab_1.2-3_all.deb

The bleeding edge known to work and is available at:

wget http://download.proxmox.com/debian/dists/squeeze/pvetest/binary-amd64/dab_1.2-4_all.deb

Both ftp:// and http:// work for the wget URLs above.

'dab' sample templates

Check for current examples: Latest build files: https://git.proxmox.com/?p=dab-pve-appliances.git;a=summary

Older examples are on ftp://download.proxmox.com/sources/

wget http://download.proxmox.com/sources/dab-pve-appliances_2011-09-13.tar.gz

Unpack with tar:

tar -zxvf dab-pve-appliances_2011-09-13.tar.gz

Build Virtual Appliances

We published several examples to show how to work with 'dab'. To start, just build a first OS template based on our examples. If you understand the basics, you can start customizing your own appliance (based on a standard OS template).

Basic recommendations

  • Choose the best suitable base OS (squeeze)
  • Choose the right architecture (i383 or amd64)
  • Always try to use deb packages for applications (instead of tar.gz files)
  • Pre-configure applications as much as possible (PHP, Apache, MySql, Postgresql, etc.) - based on the recommendations of the software
  • Use unique keys and passwords (auto generate them during first start-up)
  • Define the update procedure for users running the appliance in production: if you use Debian packages, update is easy (apt-get update)
  • Contact the Proxmox support team for help Proxmox Support Forum

Debian 6 Standard (Squeeze, i386)

This example shows the basic steps when creating appliances with 'dab'. First step is to create a temporary working directory and cd into that directory (or just cd into the previously un-tared examples):

mkdir debian-6.0-standard
cd debian-6.0-standard

Now you need to create/edit the configuration file called 'dab.conf':

Suite: lenny
Architecture: i386
Name: debian-6.0-standard
Version: 6.0-1
Section: system
Maintainer: Proxmox Support Team <support@proxmox.com>
Infopage: http://pve.proxmox.com/wiki/Debian_6.0_Standard
Description: Debian 6.0 (standard)
 A small Debian Lenny system including all standard packages.

Next step: Download the available package lists:

dab init

Start the creation process with:

dab bootstrap

Finally build the final appliance package with:

dab finalize

Thats all. Simply upload the final template to your Proxmox VE server (/var/lib/vz/template/cache/) and test what you created. Sure, always check if everything went well before releasing a template. For this purpose all output is logged to a file called 'logfile'.

When finished you may want to cleanup your working directory with:

dab clean

or use 'dist-clean' if you also want to erase the package cache directory:

dab dist-clean


You can automate above steps using make. Simply create a file called 'Makefile' (here is an example):

BASEDIR:=$(shell dab basedir)

all: info/init_ok
        dab bootstrap
        dab finalize

info/init_ok: dab.conf
        dab init
        touch $@

.PHONY: clean
clean:
        dab clean
        rm -f *~

.PHONY: dist-clean
dist-clean:
        dab dist-clean
        rm -f *~

To start template creation you can now simply type:

make

and

make clean

to cleanup the directory.

The Build your first DAB Appliance Template page shows how to practically setup DAB and get along building templates.

Other OS sample Appliances

These example OS templates are included in the dab-pve-appliances

You can find descriptions of available Virtual Appliances here.

Get support

Get support including commercial support offering concerning 'dab'.

Related Forum Posts