Difference between revisions of "HTTPS Certificate Configuration (Version 4.x, 5.0 and 5.1)"

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(Fabian Gruenbichler moved page HTTPSCertificateConfiguration to HTTPSCertificateConfigurationOld: Replaced by new HowTo)
 
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#REDIRECT [[HTTPSCertificateConfigurationOld]]
+
== Introduction ==
 +
This is a howto for changing the web server certificate used by Proxmox VE, in order to enable the usage of publicly trusted certificates issued by a CA of your choice (like Let's Encrypt or a commercial CA).
 +
It has been tested on a Proxmox VE 4.1 installation, using certificates from https://www.letsencrypt.org.
 +
 
 +
''Note: the previous, outdated version of this HowTo is archived at [[HTTPSCertificateConfigurationOld]]''
 +
 
 +
== Revert to default configuration ==
 +
If you have used the previous HowTo and replaced any of the certificate or key files generated by PVE, you need to revert to the default state before proceeding.
 +
 
 +
Delete or move the following files:
 +
 
 +
* /etc/pve/pve-root-ca.pem
 +
* /etc/pve/priv/pve-root-ca.key
 +
* /etc/pve/<node>/pve-ssl.pem
 +
* /etc/pve/<node>/pve-ssl.key
 +
 
 +
The latter two need to be repeated for all nodes if you have a cluster.
 +
 
 +
Afterwards, run the following command on each node of the cluster to re-generate the certificates and keys:
 +
 
 +
pvecm updatecerts -f
 +
 
 +
== CAs other than Let's Encrypt ==
 +
 
 +
=== Install certificate chain and key ===
 +
 
 +
Since pve-manager 4.1-20, it is possible to provide alternative SSL files for each node's web interface. The following steps need to be repeated for each node where you want to use alternative certificate files.
 +
 
 +
First check your version of pve-manager and upgrade if necessary:
 +
 
 +
pveversion
 +
 
 +
You will need the following two files provided by your CA:
 +
 
 +
* fullchain.pem (your certificate and all intermediate certificates, excluding the root certificate, in PEM format)
 +
* private-key.pem (your private key, in PEM  format, without a password)
 +
 
 +
Now copy those files to the override locations in /etc/pve/<node> (make sure to use the correct certificate files and node!):
 +
 
 +
cp fullchain.pem /etc/pve/<node>/pveproxy-ssl.pem
 +
cp private-key.pem /etc/pve/<node>/pveproxy-ssl.key
 +
 
 +
and restart the web interface:
 +
 
 +
systemctl restart pveproxy
 +
 
 +
The system log should inform you about the usage of the alternative SSL certificate ("Using '/etc/pve/local/pveproxy-ssl.pem' as certificate for the web interface."):
 +
 
 +
journalctl -b -u pveproxy.service
 +
 
 +
When accessing the web interface on this node, you should be presented with the new certificate. Note that the alternative certificate is only used by the web interface (including noVNC), but not by the Spice Console/Shell.
 +
 
 +
== Let's Encrypt using le.sh ==
 +
 
 +
=== Install certificate chain and key ===
 +
 
 +
Let's Encrypt enables everyone with a publicly resolvable domain name to be issued SSL certificates for free. The following steps show how to achieve this using the le.sh bash script and standalone HTTP authentication. The following steps need to be repeated on each node where you want to use Let's Encrypt certificates.
 +
 
 +
First check your version of pve-manager (>= 4.1-20) and upgrade if necessary:
 +
 
 +
pveversion
 +
 
 +
Install the le.sh script from https://github.com/Neilpang/le (this howto was tested with commit 9e6c420872e6e843a6a86ee31f2472574eeda3f6):
 +
 
 +
git clone https://github.com/Neilpang/le.git
 +
ACCOUNT_CONF_PATH=/etc/pve/.le/account.conf ACCOUNT_KEY_PATH=/etc/pve/.le/account.key /root/le/le.sh install
 +
 
 +
Edit the le.sh config file in /etc/pve/.le/account.conf and set your contact e-mail address and the ACCOUNT_KEY_PATH ("/etc/pve/.le/account.key").
 +
 
 +
Now you can issue your first certificate, replacing <DOMAIN> with your node's full qualified domain, which needs to be resolvable and reachable on port 80 from the public internet.
 +
 
 +
ACCOUNT_CONF_PATH=/etc/pve/.le/account.conf /root/.le/le.sh issue no <DOMAIN> no 4096 /etc/pve/local/pveproxy-ssl.pem /etc/pve/local/pveproxy-ssl.key /etc/pve/local/pveproxy-ssl.pem "systemctl restart pveproxy"
 +
 
 +
Warnings like "cp: preserving permissions for ‘/etc/pve/local/pveproxy-ssl.pem.bak’: Function not implemented" can be safely ignored.
 +
 
 +
By prepending the previous command with STAGE=1 you can issue a certificate using the staging (i.e., testing) CA instead of the production CA:
 +
STAGE=1 ACCOUNT_CONF_PATH=/etc/pve/.le/account.conf /root/.le/le.sh issue no <DOMAIN> no 4096 /etc/pve/local/pveproxy-ssl.pem /etc/pve/local/pveproxy-ssl.key /etc/pve/local/pveproxy-ssl.pem "systemctl restart pveproxy"
 +
 
 +
To "upgrade" to a production certificate, you need to rerun the issue command with a prepended FORCE=1 instead of STAGE=1, in order to replace the existing (test) certificate even though it is not yet expired. This can also be used in case the node's domain name has changed:
 +
FORCE=1 ACCOUNT_CONF_PATH=/etc/pve/.le/account.conf /root/.le/le.sh issue no <DOMAIN> no 4096 /etc/pve/local/pveproxy-ssl.pem /etc/pve/local/pveproxy-ssl.key /etc/pve/local/pveproxy-ssl.pem "systemctl restart pveproxy"
 +
 
 +
The system log should inform you about the usage of the alternative SSL certificate ("Using '/etc/pve/local/pveproxy-ssl.pem' as certificate for the web interface."):
 +
 
 +
journalctl -b -u pveproxy.service
 +
 
 +
When accessing the web interface on this node, you should be presented with the new certificate. Note that the alternative certificate is only used by the web interface (including noVNC), but not by the Spice Console/Shell.
 +
 
 +
le.sh installs a cron job that checks the installed certificate(s) and automatically renews them before they expire. The requirements for issuing certificates apply for renewals as well: the configured domain name must be resolvable and reachable on port 80 from the public internet. The cron job needs to be adapted to use the account.conf file stored on the cluster file systems. Simply replace
 +
LE_WORKING_DIR="/root/.le"
 +
with
 +
ACCOUNT_CONF_PATH="/etc/pve/.le/account.conf" LE_WORKING_DIR="/root/.le"
 +
 
 +
using "crontab -e", followed by "crontab -l" to verify that the changes were saved correctly.
 +
 
 +
=== Updating le.sh ===
 +
 
 +
le.sh can be updated with the following commands:
 +
 
 +
cd /root/le
 +
git pull
 +
ACCOUNT_CONF_PATH=/etc/pve/.le/account.conf ACCOUNT_KEY_PATH=/etc/pve/.le/account.key /root/le/le.sh install
 +
 
 +
=== Account key ===
 +
 
 +
It is recommended to do an off-site/offline backup of the account key file in /etc/pve/.le/account.key, in case one of your certificate private key files is lost or compromised, it can be used to revoke the associated certificate.
 +
 
 +
== Let's Encrypt using other clients ==
 +
 
 +
It should also be possible to use other Let's Encrypt clients, as long as care is taken that the issued as well as renewed certificates and the associated keys are copied to the correct locations, and the pveproxy service is restarted afterwards.
 +
 
 +
[[Category: HOWTO]]

Revision as of 15:39, 23 March 2016

Introduction

This is a howto for changing the web server certificate used by Proxmox VE, in order to enable the usage of publicly trusted certificates issued by a CA of your choice (like Let's Encrypt or a commercial CA). It has been tested on a Proxmox VE 4.1 installation, using certificates from https://www.letsencrypt.org.

Note: the previous, outdated version of this HowTo is archived at HTTPSCertificateConfigurationOld

Revert to default configuration

If you have used the previous HowTo and replaced any of the certificate or key files generated by PVE, you need to revert to the default state before proceeding.

Delete or move the following files:

  • /etc/pve/pve-root-ca.pem
  • /etc/pve/priv/pve-root-ca.key
  • /etc/pve/<node>/pve-ssl.pem
  • /etc/pve/<node>/pve-ssl.key

The latter two need to be repeated for all nodes if you have a cluster.

Afterwards, run the following command on each node of the cluster to re-generate the certificates and keys:

pvecm updatecerts -f

CAs other than Let's Encrypt

Install certificate chain and key

Since pve-manager 4.1-20, it is possible to provide alternative SSL files for each node's web interface. The following steps need to be repeated for each node where you want to use alternative certificate files.

First check your version of pve-manager and upgrade if necessary:

pveversion

You will need the following two files provided by your CA:

  • fullchain.pem (your certificate and all intermediate certificates, excluding the root certificate, in PEM format)
  • private-key.pem (your private key, in PEM format, without a password)

Now copy those files to the override locations in /etc/pve/<node> (make sure to use the correct certificate files and node!):

cp fullchain.pem /etc/pve/<node>/pveproxy-ssl.pem
cp private-key.pem /etc/pve/<node>/pveproxy-ssl.key

and restart the web interface:

systemctl restart pveproxy

The system log should inform you about the usage of the alternative SSL certificate ("Using '/etc/pve/local/pveproxy-ssl.pem' as certificate for the web interface."):

journalctl -b -u pveproxy.service

When accessing the web interface on this node, you should be presented with the new certificate. Note that the alternative certificate is only used by the web interface (including noVNC), but not by the Spice Console/Shell.

Let's Encrypt using le.sh

Install certificate chain and key

Let's Encrypt enables everyone with a publicly resolvable domain name to be issued SSL certificates for free. The following steps show how to achieve this using the le.sh bash script and standalone HTTP authentication. The following steps need to be repeated on each node where you want to use Let's Encrypt certificates.

First check your version of pve-manager (>= 4.1-20) and upgrade if necessary:

pveversion

Install the le.sh script from https://github.com/Neilpang/le (this howto was tested with commit 9e6c420872e6e843a6a86ee31f2472574eeda3f6):

git clone https://github.com/Neilpang/le.git
ACCOUNT_CONF_PATH=/etc/pve/.le/account.conf ACCOUNT_KEY_PATH=/etc/pve/.le/account.key /root/le/le.sh install

Edit the le.sh config file in /etc/pve/.le/account.conf and set your contact e-mail address and the ACCOUNT_KEY_PATH ("/etc/pve/.le/account.key").

Now you can issue your first certificate, replacing <DOMAIN> with your node's full qualified domain, which needs to be resolvable and reachable on port 80 from the public internet.

ACCOUNT_CONF_PATH=/etc/pve/.le/account.conf /root/.le/le.sh issue no <DOMAIN> no 4096 /etc/pve/local/pveproxy-ssl.pem /etc/pve/local/pveproxy-ssl.key /etc/pve/local/pveproxy-ssl.pem "systemctl restart pveproxy"

Warnings like "cp: preserving permissions for ‘/etc/pve/local/pveproxy-ssl.pem.bak’: Function not implemented" can be safely ignored.

By prepending the previous command with STAGE=1 you can issue a certificate using the staging (i.e., testing) CA instead of the production CA:

STAGE=1 ACCOUNT_CONF_PATH=/etc/pve/.le/account.conf /root/.le/le.sh issue no <DOMAIN> no 4096 /etc/pve/local/pveproxy-ssl.pem /etc/pve/local/pveproxy-ssl.key /etc/pve/local/pveproxy-ssl.pem "systemctl restart pveproxy"

To "upgrade" to a production certificate, you need to rerun the issue command with a prepended FORCE=1 instead of STAGE=1, in order to replace the existing (test) certificate even though it is not yet expired. This can also be used in case the node's domain name has changed:

FORCE=1 ACCOUNT_CONF_PATH=/etc/pve/.le/account.conf /root/.le/le.sh issue no <DOMAIN> no 4096 /etc/pve/local/pveproxy-ssl.pem /etc/pve/local/pveproxy-ssl.key /etc/pve/local/pveproxy-ssl.pem "systemctl restart pveproxy"

The system log should inform you about the usage of the alternative SSL certificate ("Using '/etc/pve/local/pveproxy-ssl.pem' as certificate for the web interface."):

journalctl -b -u pveproxy.service

When accessing the web interface on this node, you should be presented with the new certificate. Note that the alternative certificate is only used by the web interface (including noVNC), but not by the Spice Console/Shell.

le.sh installs a cron job that checks the installed certificate(s) and automatically renews them before they expire. The requirements for issuing certificates apply for renewals as well: the configured domain name must be resolvable and reachable on port 80 from the public internet. The cron job needs to be adapted to use the account.conf file stored on the cluster file systems. Simply replace

LE_WORKING_DIR="/root/.le"

with

ACCOUNT_CONF_PATH="/etc/pve/.le/account.conf" LE_WORKING_DIR="/root/.le"

using "crontab -e", followed by "crontab -l" to verify that the changes were saved correctly.

Updating le.sh

le.sh can be updated with the following commands:

cd /root/le
git pull
ACCOUNT_CONF_PATH=/etc/pve/.le/account.conf ACCOUNT_KEY_PATH=/etc/pve/.le/account.key /root/le/le.sh install

Account key

It is recommended to do an off-site/offline backup of the account key file in /etc/pve/.le/account.key, in case one of your certificate private key files is lost or compromised, it can be used to revoke the associated certificate.

Let's Encrypt using other clients

It should also be possible to use other Let's Encrypt clients, as long as care is taken that the issued as well as renewed certificates and the associated keys are copied to the correct locations, and the pveproxy service is restarted afterwards.