Proxmox VE currently uses one of two bootloaders depending on the disk setup selected in the installer.
For EFI Systems installed with ZFS as the root filesystem systemd-boot is used. All other deployments use the standard grub bootloader (this usually also applies to systems which are installed on top of Debian).
Partitioning Scheme Used by the Installer
The Proxmox VE installer creates 3 partitions on all disks selected for installation.
The created partitions are:
a 1 MB BIOS Boot Partition (gdisk type EF02)
a 512 MB EFI System Partition (ESP, gdisk type EF00)
a third partition spanning the set hdsize parameter or the remaining space used for the chosen storage type
Systems using ZFS as root filesystem are booted with a kernel and initrd image stored on the 512 MB EFI System Partition. For legacy BIOS systems, grub is used, for EFI systems systemd-boot is used. Both are installed and configured to point to the ESPs.
grub in BIOS mode (--target i386-pc) is installed onto the BIOS Boot
Partition of all selected disks on all systems booted with grub
[These are all installs with root on ext4 or xfs and installs with root on ZFS on non-EFI systems]
Synchronizing the content of the ESP with proxmox-boot-tool
proxmox-boot-tool is a utility used to keep the contents of the EFI System
Partitions properly configured and synchronized. It copies certain kernel
versions to all ESPs and configures the respective bootloader to boot from
the vfat formatted ESPs. In the context of ZFS as root filesystem this means
that you can use all optional features on your root pool instead of the subset
which is also present in the ZFS implementation in grub or having to create a
separate small boot-pool
[Booting ZFS on root with grub https://github.com/zfsonlinux/zfs/wiki/Debian-Stretch-Root-on-ZFS]
In setups with redundancy all disks are partitioned with an ESP, by the installer. This ensures the system boots even if the first boot device fails or if the BIOS can only boot from a particular disk.
The ESPs are not kept mounted during regular operation. This helps to prevent filesystem corruption to the vfat formatted ESPs in case of a system crash, and removes the need to manually adapt /etc/fstab in case the primary boot device fails.
proxmox-boot-tool handles the following tasks:
formatting and setting up a new partition
copying and configuring new kernel images and initrd images to all listed ESPs
synchronizing the configuration on kernel upgrades and other maintenance tasks
managing the list of kernel versions which are synchronized
configuring the boot-loader to boot a particular kernel version (pinning)
You can view the currently configured ESPs and their state by running:
# proxmox-boot-tool status
Setting up a new partition for use as synced ESP
To format and initialize a partition as synced ESP, e.g., after replacing a failed vdev in an rpool, or when converting an existing system that pre-dates the sync mechanism, proxmox-boot-tool from pve-kernel-helpers can be used.
|the format command will format the <partition>, make sure to pass in the right device/partition!|
For example, to format an empty partition /dev/sda2 as ESP, run the following:
# proxmox-boot-tool format /dev/sda2
To setup an existing, unmounted ESP located on /dev/sda2 for inclusion in Proxmox VE’s kernel update synchronization mechanism, use the following:
# proxmox-boot-tool init /dev/sda2
Afterwards /etc/kernel/proxmox-boot-uuids should contain a new line with the UUID of the newly added partition. The init command will also automatically trigger a refresh of all configured ESPs.
Updating the configuration on all ESPs
To copy and configure all bootable kernels and keep all ESPs listed in /etc/kernel/proxmox-boot-uuids in sync you just need to run:
# proxmox-boot-tool refresh
(The equivalent to running update-grub systems with ext4 or xfs on root).
This is necessary should you make changes to the kernel commandline, or want to sync all kernels and initrds.
|Both update-initramfs and apt (when necessary) will automatically trigger a refresh.|
Kernel Versions considered by proxmox-boot-tool
The following kernel versions are configured by default:
the currently running kernel
the version being newly installed on package updates
the two latest already installed kernels
the latest version of the second-to-last kernel series (e.g. 5.0, 5.3), if applicable
any manually selected kernels
Manually keeping a kernel bootable
Should you wish to add a certain kernel and initrd image to the list of bootable kernels use proxmox-boot-tool kernel add.
For example run the following to add the kernel with ABI version 5.0.15-1-pve to the list of kernels to keep installed and synced to all ESPs:
# proxmox-boot-tool kernel add 5.0.15-1-pve
proxmox-boot-tool kernel list will list all kernel versions currently selected for booting:
# proxmox-boot-tool kernel list Manually selected kernels: 5.0.15-1-pve Automatically selected kernels: 5.0.12-1-pve 4.15.18-18-pve
Run proxmox-boot-tool kernel remove to remove a kernel from the list of manually selected kernels, for example:
# proxmox-boot-tool kernel remove 5.0.15-1-pve
|It’s required to run proxmox-boot-tool refresh to update all EFI System Partitions (ESPs) after a manual kernel addition or removal from above.|
Determine which Bootloader is Used
The simplest and most reliable way to determine which bootloader is used, is to watch the boot process of the Proxmox VE node.
You will either see the blue box of grub or the simple black on white systemd-boot.
Determining the bootloader from a running system might not be 100% accurate. The safest way is to run the following command:
# efibootmgr -v
If it returns a message that EFI variables are not supported, grub is used in BIOS/Legacy mode.
If the output contains a line that looks similar to the following, grub is used in UEFI mode.
Boot0005* proxmox [...] File(\EFI\proxmox\grubx64.efi)
If the output contains a line similar to the following, systemd-boot is used.
Boot0006* Linux Boot Manager [...] File(\EFI\systemd\systemd-bootx64.efi)
# proxmox-boot-tool status
you can find out if proxmox-boot-tool is configured, which is a good indication of how the system is booted.
grub has been the de-facto standard for booting Linux systems for many years
and is quite well documented
[Grub Manual https://www.gnu.org/software/grub/manual/grub/grub.html]
Changes to the grub configuration are done via the defaults file
/etc/default/grub or config snippets in /etc/default/grub.d. To regenerate
the configuration file after a change to the configuration run:
[Systems using proxmox-boot-tool will call proxmox-boot-tool refresh upon update-grub.]
systemd-boot is a lightweight EFI bootloader. It reads the kernel and initrd images directly from the EFI Service Partition (ESP) where it is installed. The main advantage of directly loading the kernel from the ESP is that it does not need to reimplement the drivers for accessing the storage. In Proxmox VE proxmox-boot-tool is used to keep the configuration on the ESPs synchronized.
systemd-boot is configured via the file loader/loader.conf in the root directory of an EFI System Partition (ESP). See the loader.conf(5) manpage for details.
Each bootloader entry is placed in a file of its own in the directory loader/entries/
An example entry.conf looks like this (/ refers to the root of the ESP):
title Proxmox version 5.0.15-1-pve options root=ZFS=rpool/ROOT/pve-1 boot=zfs linux /EFI/proxmox/5.0.15-1-pve/vmlinuz-5.0.15-1-pve initrd /EFI/proxmox/5.0.15-1-pve/initrd.img-5.0.15-1-pve
Editing the Kernel Commandline
You can modify the kernel commandline in the following places, depending on the bootloader used:
The kernel commandline needs to be placed in the variable GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT in the file /etc/default/grub. Running update-grub appends its content to all linux entries in /boot/grub/grub.cfg.
The kernel commandline needs to be placed as one line in /etc/kernel/cmdline. To apply your changes, run proxmox-boot-tool refresh, which sets it as the option line for all config files in loader/entries/proxmox-*.conf.
Override the Kernel-Version for next Boot
To select a kernel that is not currently the default kernel, you can either:
use the boot loader menu that is displayed at the beginning of the boot process
use the proxmox-boot-tool to pin the system to a kernel version either once or permanently (until pin is reset).
This should help you work around incompatibilities between a newer kernel version and the hardware.
|Such a pin should be removed as soon as possible so that all current security patches of the latest kernel are also applied to the system.|
For example: To permanently select the version 5.15.30-1-pve for booting you would run:
# proxmox-boot-tool kernel pin 5.15.30-1-pve
|The pinning functionality works for all Proxmox VE systems, not only those using proxmox-boot-tool to synchronize the contents of the ESPs, if your system does not use proxmox-boot-tool for synchronizing you can also skip the proxmox-boot-tool refresh call in the end.|
You can also set a kernel version to be booted on the next system boot only. This is for example useful to test if an updated kernel has resolved an issue, which caused you to pin a version in the first place:
# proxmox-boot-tool kernel pin 5.15.30-1-pve --next-boot
To remove any pinned version configuration use the unpin subcommand:
# proxmox-boot-tool kernel unpin
While unpin has a --next-boot option as well, it is used to clear a pinned version set with --next-boot. As that happens already automatically on boot, invonking it manually is of little use.
After setting, or clearing pinned versions you also need to synchronize the content and configuration on the ESPs by running the refresh subcommand.
|You will be prompted to automatically do for proxmox-boot-tool managed systems if you call the tool interactively.|
# proxmox-boot-tool refresh