Difference between revisions of "Installation"

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[[Category:Reference Documentation]]
 
[[Category:Reference Documentation]]
 
<pvehide>
 
<pvehide>
Proxmox VE is based on Debian and comes with an installation CD-ROM
+
Proxmox VE is based on Debian, therefore the disk image (ISO file) provided
which includes a complete Debian system ("stretch" for version 5.x) as
+
by us includes a complete Debian system ("stretch" for version 5.x) as
 
well as all necessary Proxmox VE packages.
 
well as all necessary Proxmox VE packages.
The installer just asks you a few questions, then partitions the local
+
Using the installer will guide you through the setup, allowing
disk(s), installs all required packages, and configures the system
+
you to partition the local disk(s), apply basic system configurations
including a basic network setup. You can get a fully functional system
+
(e.g. timezone, language, network) and install all required packages.
within a few minutes. This is the preferred and recommended
+
Using the provided ISO will get you started in just a few minutes,
installation method.
+
that&#8217;s why we recommend this method for new and existing users.
 
Alternatively, Proxmox VE can be installed on top of an existing Debian
 
Alternatively, Proxmox VE can be installed on top of an existing Debian
 
system. This option is only recommended for advanced users since
 
system. This option is only recommended for advanced users since
detail knowledge about Proxmox VE is necessary.
+
detailed knowledge about Proxmox VE is necessary.
Using the Proxmox VE Installation CD-ROM
+
Using the Proxmox VE Installer
You can download the ISO from http://www.proxmox.com. It includes the
+
You can download the ISO from https://www.proxmox.com/en/downloads.
following:
+
It includes the following:
 
Complete operating system (Debian Linux, 64-bit)
 
Complete operating system (Debian Linux, 64-bit)
The Proxmox VE installer, which partitions the hard drive(s) with ext4,
+
The Proxmox VE installer, which partitions the local disk(s) with ext4,
 
   ext3, xfs or ZFS and installs the operating system.
 
   ext3, xfs or ZFS and installs the operating system.
 
Proxmox VE kernel (Linux) with LXC and KVM support
 
Proxmox VE kernel (Linux) with LXC and KVM support
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   all necessary resources
 
   all necessary resources
 
Web based management interface for using the toolset
 
Web based management interface for using the toolset
By default, the complete server is used and all existing data is
+
During the installation process, the complete server
removed.
+
is used by default and all existing data is removed.
Please insert the installation CD-ROM, then boot from that
+
Please insert the installation media (e.g. USB stick, CD-ROM) and boot
drive. Immediately afterwards you can choose the following menu
+
from it.
options:
+
After choosing the correct entry (e.g. Boot from USB) the Proxmox VE menu
 +
will be displayed, you can now select one of the following options:
 
Install Proxmox VE
 
Install Proxmox VE
 
Start normal installation.
 
Start normal installation.
 +
It is possible to only use the keyboard to progress through the
 +
installation wizard. Buttons can be pressed by pressing down the ALT
 +
key, combined with the underlined character from the respective Button.
 +
For example, ALT + N to press a Next button.
 
Install Proxmox VE (Debug mode)
 
Install Proxmox VE (Debug mode)
 
Start installation in debug mode. It opens a shell console at several
 
Start installation in debug mode. It opens a shell console at several
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ext4 or xfs as file system, and offers additional option to
 
ext4 or xfs as file system, and offers additional option to
 
restrict LVM space (see below)
 
restrict LVM space (see below)
If you have more than one disk, you can also use ZFS as file system.
+
You can also use ZFS as file system. ZFS supports several software RAID
ZFS supports several software RAID levels, so this is specially useful
+
levels, so this is specially useful if you do not have a hardware RAID
if you do not have a hardware RAID controller. The Options button
+
controller. The Options button lets you select the ZFS RAID level, and
lets you select the ZFS RAID level, and you can choose disks there.
+
you can choose disks there. Additionally you can set additional options (see
 +
below).
 
The next page just ask for basic configuration options like your
 
The next page just ask for basic configuration options like your
 
location, the time zone and keyboard layout. The location is used to
 
location, the time zone and keyboard layout. The location is used to
select a download server near you to speedup updates. The installer is
+
select a download server near you to speed up updates. The installer is
usually able to auto detect those setting, so you only need to change
+
usually able to auto detect those settings, so you only need to change
 
them in rare situations when auto detection fails, or when you want to
 
them in rare situations when auto detection fails, or when you want to
 
use some special keyboard layout not commonly used in your country.
 
use some special keyboard layout not commonly used in your country.
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   romantic links (current or past) and biographical information (e.g.,
 
   romantic links (current or past) and biographical information (e.g.,
 
   ID numbers, ancestors' names or dates).
 
   ID numbers, ancestors' names or dates).
It is sometimes necessary to send notification to the system
+
It is sometimes necessary to send notifications to the system
 
administrator, for example:
 
administrator, for example:
 
Information about available package updates.
 
Information about available package updates.
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If you press Next now, installation starts to format disks, and
 
If you press Next now, installation starts to format disks, and
 
copies packages to the target. Please wait until that is finished,
 
copies packages to the target. Please wait until that is finished,
then reboot the server.
+
then remove the installation media and restart your system.
 
Further configuration is done via the Proxmox web interface. Just
 
Further configuration is done via the Proxmox web interface. Just
 
point your browser to the IP address given during installation
 
point your browser to the IP address given during installation
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LVM requires free space in the VG for snapshot creation (not
 
LVM requires free space in the VG for snapshot creation (not
 
required for lvmthin snapshots).
 
required for lvmthin snapshots).
 +
Advanced ZFS Configuration Options
 +
The installer creates a ZFS pool rpool. When selecting ZFS, no swap space is
 +
created by default. You can leave some unpartitioned space for swap or create
 +
a swap zvol after installation, though the latter can lead to problems
 +
(see ZFS swap notes).
 +
ashift
 +
Defines the ashift value for the created pool. The ashift needs
 +
to be set at least to the sector-size of the underlying disks (2 to
 +
the power of ashift is the sector-size), or any disk,
 +
which might be put in the pool (e.g. during replacing a defective disk).
 +
compress
 +
Defines whether compression is enabled for rpool.
 +
checksum
 +
Defines which checksumming algorithm should be used for rpool.
 +
copies
 +
Defines the copies parameter for rpool. Check the zfs(8) manpage for the
 +
semantics, and why this does not replace redundancy on disk-level.
 +
hdsize
 +
Defines the total HD size to be used. This way you can save free
 +
space on the HD(s) for further partitioning (e.g. for creating a swap-partition).
 +
hdsize is only honored for bootable disks, i.e., only the first disk or
 +
mirror for RAID0, RAID1 or RAID10, and all disks in RAID-Z[123].
 
ZFS Performance Tips
 
ZFS Performance Tips
 
ZFS uses a lot of memory, so it is best to add additional RAM if you
 
ZFS uses a lot of memory, so it is best to add additional RAM if you
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installation using the following command:
 
installation using the following command:
 
zpool add &lt;pool-name&gt; log &lt;/dev/path_to_fast_ssd&gt;
 
zpool add &lt;pool-name&gt; log &lt;/dev/path_to_fast_ssd&gt;
 +
Install from USB Stick
 
Install Proxmox VE on Debian Stretch
 
Install Proxmox VE on Debian Stretch
Install from USB Stick
 
 
Video Tutorials
 
Video Tutorials
 
List of all official tutorials on our
 
List of all official tutorials on our

Revision as of 10:04, 16 April 2019

Proxmox VE is based on Debian. This is why the install disk images (ISO files) provided by Proxmox include a complete Debian system (Debian 10 Buster for Proxmox VE version 6.x) as well as all necessary Proxmox VE packages.

The installer will guide through the setup, allowing you to partition the local disk(s), apply basic system configurations (for example, timezone, language, network) and install all required packages. This process should not take more than a few minutes. Installing with the provided ISO is the recommended method for new and existing users.

Alternatively, Proxmox VE can be installed on top of an existing Debian system. This option is only recommended for advanced users because detailed knowledge about Proxmox VE is required.

Using the Proxmox VE Installer

The installer ISO image includes the following:

  • Complete operating system (Debian Linux, 64-bit)

  • The Proxmox VE installer, which partitions the local disk(s) with ext4, ext3, xfs or ZFS and installs the operating system.

  • Proxmox VE Linux kernel with KVM and LXC support

  • Complete toolset for administering virtual machines, containers, the host system, clusters and all necessary resources

  • Web-based management interface

Note All existing data on the for installation selected drives will be removed during the installation process. The installer does not add boot menu entries for other operating systems.

Please insert the prepared installation media (for example, USB flash drive or CD-ROM) and boot from it.

Tip Make sure that booting from the installation medium (for example, USB) is enabled in your servers firmware settings.
screenshot/pve-grub-menu.png

After choosing the correct entry (e.g. Boot from USB) the Proxmox VE menu will be displayed and one of the following options can be selected:

Install Proxmox VE

Starts the normal installation.

Tip It’s possible to use the installation wizard with a keyboard only. Buttons can be clicked by pressing the ALT key combined with the underlined character from the respective button. For example, ALT + N to press a Next button.
Install Proxmox VE (Debug mode)

Starts the installation in debug mode. A console will be opened at several installation steps. This helps to debug the situation if something goes wrong. To exit a debug console, press CTRL-D. This option can be used to boot a live system with all basic tools available. You can use it, for example, to repair a degraded ZFS rpool or fix the bootloader for an existing Proxmox VE setup.

Rescue Boot

With this option you can boot an existing installation. It searches all attached hard disks. If it finds an existing installation, it boots directly into that disk using the Linux kernel from the ISO. This can be useful if there are problems with the boot block (grub) or the BIOS is unable to read the boot block from the disk.

Test Memory

Runs memtest86+. This is useful to check if the memory is functional and free of errors.

screenshot/pve-select-target-disk.png

After selecting Install Proxmox VE and accepting the EULA, the prompt to select the target hard disk(s) will appear. The Options button opens the dialog to select the target file system.

The default file system is ext4. The Logical Volume Manager (LVM) is used when ext3, ext4 or xfs ist selected. Additional options to restrict LVM space can be set (see below).

Proxmox VE can be installed on ZFS. As ZFS offers several software RAID levels, this is an option for systems that don’t have a hardware RAID controller. The target disks must be selected in the Options dialog. More ZFS specific settings can be changed under Advanced Options (see below).

Warning ZFS on top of any hardware RAID is not supported and can result in data loss.
screenshot/pve-select-location.png

The next page asks for basic configuration options like the location, the time zone, and keyboard layout. The location is used to select a download server close by to speed up updates. The installer usually auto-detects these settings. They only need to be changed in the rare case that auto detection fails or a different keyboard layout should be used.

screenshot/pve-set-password.png

Next the password of the superuser (root) and an email address needs to be specified. The password must consist of at least 5 characters. It’s highly recommended to use a stronger password. Some guidelines are:

  • Use a minimum password length of 12 to 14 characters.

  • Include lowercase and uppercase alphabetic characters, numbers, and symbols.

  • Avoid character repetition, keyboard patterns, common dictionary words, letter or number sequences, usernames, relative or pet names, romantic links (current or past), and biographical information (for example ID numbers, ancestors' names or dates).

The email address is used to send notifications to the system administrator. For example:

  • Information about available package updates.

  • Error messages from periodic CRON jobs.

screenshot/pve-setup-network.png

The last step is the network configuration. Please note that during installation you can either use an IPv4 or IPv6 address, but not both. To configure a dual stack node, add additional IP addresses after the installation.

screenshot/pve-installation.png

The next step shows a summary of the previously selected options. Re-check every setting and use the Previous button if a setting needs to be changed. To accept, press Install. The installation starts to format disks and copies packages to the target. Please wait until this step has finished; then remove the installation medium and restart your system.

screenshot/pve-install-summary.png

If the installation failed check out specific errors on the second TTY (‘CTRL + ALT + F2’), ensure that the systems meets the minimum requirements. If the installation is still not working look at the how to get help chapter.

Further configuration is done via the Proxmox web interface. Point your browser to the IP address given during installation (https://youripaddress:8006).

Note Default login is "root" (realm PAM) and the root password is defined during the installation process.

Advanced LVM Configuration Options

The installer creates a Volume Group (VG) called pve, and additional Logical Volumes (LVs) called root, data, and swap. To control the size of these volumes use:

hdsize

Defines the total hard disk size to be used. This way you can reserve free space on the hard disk for further partitioning (for example for an additional PV and VG on the same hard disk that can be used for LVM storage).

swapsize

Defines the size of the swap volume. The default is the size of the installed memory, minimum 4 GB and maximum 8 GB. The resulting value cannot be greater than hdsize/8.

Note If set to 0, no swap volume will be created.
maxroot

Defines the maximum size of the root volume, which stores the operation system. The maximum limit of the root volume size is hdsize/4.

maxvz

Defines the maximum size of the data volume. The actual size of the data volume is:

datasize = hdsize - rootsize - swapsize - minfree

Where datasize cannot be bigger than maxvz.

Note In case of LVM thin, the data pool will only be created if datasize is bigger than 4GB.
Note If set to 0, no data volume will be created and the storage configuration will be adapted accordingly.
minfree

Defines the amount of free space left in the LVM volume group pve. With more than 128GB storage available the default is 16GB, else hdsize/8 will be used.

Note LVM requires free space in the VG for snapshot creation (not required for lvmthin snapshots).

Advanced ZFS Configuration Options

The installer creates the ZFS pool rpool. No swap space is created but you can reserve some unpartitioned space on the install disks for swap. You can also create a swap zvol after the installation, although this can lead to problems. (see ZFS swap notes).

ashift

Defines the ashift value for the created pool. The ashift needs to be set at least to the sector-size of the underlying disks (2 to the power of ashift is the sector-size), or any disk which might be put in the pool (for example the replacement of a defective disk).

compress

Defines whether compression is enabled for rpool.

checksum

Defines which checksumming algorithm should be used for rpool.

copies

Defines the copies parameter for rpool. Check the zfs(8) manpage for the semantics, and why this does not replace redundancy on disk-level.

hdsize

Defines the total hard disk size to be used. This is useful to save free space on the hard disk(s) for further partitioning (for example to create a swap-partition). hdsize is only honored for bootable disks, that is only the first disk or mirror for RAID0, RAID1 or RAID10, and all disks in RAID-Z[123].

ZFS Performance Tips

ZFS works best with a lot of memory. If you intend to use ZFS make sure to have enough RAM available for it. A good calculation is 4GB plus 1GB RAM for each TB RAW disk space.

ZFS can use a dedicated drive as write cache, called the ZFS Intent Log (ZIL). Use a fast drive (SSD) for it. It can be added after installation with the following command:

# zpool add <pool-name> log </dev/path_to_fast_ssd>
link:/wiki/Install_Proxmox_VE_on_Debian_Buster[Install Proxmox VE on Debian Buster]

Video Tutorials