Difference between revisions of "Installation"

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= Introduction =
+
<!--PVE_IMPORT_START_MARKER-->
 +
<!-- Do not edit - this is autogenerated content -->
 +
{{#pvedocs:pve-installation-plain.html}}
 +
[[Category:Reference Documentation]]
 +
<pvehide>
 +
Proxmox VE is based on Debian, therefore the disk image (ISO file) provided
 +
by us includes a complete Debian system ("stretch" for version 5.x) as
 +
well as all necessary Proxmox VE packages.
 +
Using the installer will guide you through the setup, allowing
 +
you to partition the local disk(s), apply basic system configurations
 +
(e.g. timezone, language, network) and install all required packages.
 +
Using the provided ISO will get you started in just a few minutes,
 +
that&#8217;s why we recommend this method for new and existing users.
 +
Alternatively, Proxmox VE can be installed on top of an existing Debian
 +
system. This option is only recommended for advanced users since
 +
detailed knowledge about Proxmox VE is necessary.
 +
Using the Proxmox VE Installer
 +
You can download the ISO from https://www.proxmox.com/en/downloads.
 +
It includes the following:
 +
Complete operating system (Debian Linux, 64-bit)
 +
The Proxmox VE installer, which partitions the local disk(s) with ext4,
 +
  ext3, xfs or ZFS and installs the operating system.
 +
Proxmox VE kernel (Linux) with LXC and KVM support
 +
Complete toolset for administering virtual machines, containers and
 +
  all necessary resources
 +
Web based management interface for using the toolset
 +
During the installation process, the complete server
 +
is used by default and all existing data is removed.
 +
Please insert the installation media (e.g. USB stick, CD-ROM) and boot
 +
from it.
 +
After choosing the correct entry (e.g. Boot from USB) the Proxmox VE menu
 +
will be displayed, you can now select one of the following options:
 +
Install Proxmox VE
 +
Start normal installation.
 +
It is possible to only use the keyboard to progress through the
 +
installation wizard. Buttons can be pressed by pressing down the ALT
 +
key, combined with the underlined character from the respective Button.
 +
For example, ALT + N to press a Next button.
 +
Install Proxmox VE (Debug mode)
 +
Start installation in debug mode. It opens a shell console at several
 +
installation steps, so that you can debug things if something goes
 +
wrong. Please press CTRL-D to exit those debug consoles and continue
 +
installation. This option is mostly for developers and not meant for
 +
general use.
 +
Rescue Boot
 +
This option allows you to boot an existing installation. It searches
 +
all attached hard disks and, if it finds an existing installation,
 +
boots directly into that disk using the existing Linux kernel. This
 +
can be useful if there are problems with the boot block (grub), or the
 +
BIOS is unable to read the boot block from the disk.
 +
Test Memory
 +
Runs memtest86+. This is useful to check if your memory is
 +
functional and error free.
 +
You normally select Install Proxmox VE to start the installation.
 +
After that you get prompted to select the target hard disk(s). The
 +
Options button lets you select the target file system, which
 +
defaults to ext4. The installer uses LVM if you select ext3,
 +
ext4 or xfs as file system, and offers additional option to
 +
restrict LVM space (see below)
 +
You can also use ZFS as file system. ZFS supports several software RAID
 +
levels, so this is specially useful if you do not have a hardware RAID
 +
controller. The Options button lets you select the ZFS RAID level, and
 +
you can choose disks there. Additionally you can set additional options (see
 +
below).
 +
The next page just asks for basic configuration options like your
 +
location, the time zone and keyboard layout. The location is used to
 +
select a download server near you to speed up updates. The installer is
 +
usually able to auto detect those settings, so you only need to change
 +
them in rare situations when auto detection fails, or when you want to
 +
use some special keyboard layout not commonly used in your country.
 +
You then need to specify an email address and the superuser (root)
 +
password. The password must have at least 5 characters, but we highly
 +
recommend to use stronger passwords - here are some guidelines:
 +
Use a minimum password length of 12 to 14 characters.
 +
Include lowercase and uppercase alphabetic characters, numbers and symbols.
 +
Avoid character repetition, keyboard patterns, dictionary words,
 +
  letter or number sequences, usernames, relative or pet names,
 +
  romantic links (current or past) and biographical information (e.g.,
 +
  ID numbers, ancestors' names or dates).
 +
It is sometimes necessary to send notifications to the system
 +
administrator, for example:
 +
Information about available package updates.
 +
Error messages from periodic CRON jobs.
 +
All those notification mails will be sent to the specified email
 +
address.
 +
The last step is the network configuration. Please note that you can
 +
use either IPv4 or IPv6 here, but not both. If you want to configure a
 +
dual stack node, you can easily do that after installation.
 +
If you press Next now, installation starts to format disks, and
 +
copies packages to the target. Please wait until that is finished,
 +
then remove the installation media and restart your system.
 +
Further configuration is done via the Proxmox web interface. Just
 +
point your browser to the IP address given during installation
 +
(https://youripaddress:8006).
 +
Default login is "root" (realm PAM) and the root password is
 +
defined during the installation process.
 +
Advanced LVM Configuration Options
 +
The installer creates a Volume Group (VG) called pve, and additional
 +
Logical Volumes (LVs) called root, data and swap. The size of
 +
those volumes can be controlled with:
 +
hdsize
 +
Defines the total HD size to be used. This way you can save free
 +
space on the HD for further partitioning (i.e. for an additional PV
 +
and VG on the same hard disk that can be used for LVM storage).
 +
swapsize
 +
Defines the size of the swap volume. The default is the size of the
 +
installed memory, minimum 4 GB and maximum 8 GB. The resulting value cannot
 +
be greater than hdsize/8.
 +
If set to 0, no swap volume will be created.
 +
maxroot
 +
Defines the maximum size of the root volume, which stores the operation
 +
system. The maximum limit of the root volume size is hdsize/4.
 +
maxvz
 +
Defines the maximum size of the data volume. The actual size of the data
 +
volume is:
 +
datasize = hdsize - rootsize - swapsize - minfree
 +
Where datasize cannot be bigger than maxvz.
 +
In case of LVM thin, the data pool will only be created if datasize
 +
is bigger than 4GB.
 +
If set to 0, no data volume will be created and the storage
 +
configuration will be adapted accordingly.
 +
minfree
 +
Defines the amount of free space left in LVM volume group pve.
 +
With more than 128GB storage available the default is 16GB, else hdsize/8
 +
will be used.
 +
LVM requires free space in the VG for snapshot creation (not
 +
required for lvmthin snapshots).
 +
Advanced ZFS Configuration Options
 +
The installer creates a ZFS pool rpool. When selecting ZFS, no swap space is
 +
created by default. You can leave some unpartitioned space for swap or create
 +
a swap zvol after installation, though the latter can lead to problems
 +
(see ZFS swap notes).
 +
ashift
 +
Defines the ashift value for the created pool. The ashift needs
 +
to be set at least to the sector-size of the underlying disks (2 to
 +
the power of ashift is the sector-size), or any disk,
 +
which might be put in the pool (e.g. during replacing a defective disk).
 +
compress
 +
Defines whether compression is enabled for rpool.
 +
checksum
 +
Defines which checksumming algorithm should be used for rpool.
 +
copies
 +
Defines the copies parameter for rpool. Check the zfs(8) manpage for the
 +
semantics, and why this does not replace redundancy on disk-level.
 +
hdsize
 +
Defines the total HD size to be used. This way you can save free
 +
space on the HD(s) for further partitioning (e.g. for creating a swap-partition).
 +
hdsize is only honored for bootable disks, i.e., only the first disk or
 +
mirror for RAID0, RAID1 or RAID10, and all disks in RAID-Z[123].
 +
ZFS Performance Tips
 +
ZFS uses a lot of memory, so it is best to add additional RAM if you
 +
want to use ZFS. A good calculation is 4GB plus 1GB RAM for each TB
 +
RAW disk space.
 +
ZFS also provides the feature to use a fast SSD drive as write cache. The
 +
write cache is called the ZFS Intent Log (ZIL). You can add that after
 +
installation using the following command:
 +
zpool add &lt;pool-name&gt; log &lt;/dev/path_to_fast_ssd&gt;
 +
Install from USB Stick
 +
Install Proxmox VE on Debian Stretch
 +
Video Tutorials
 +
List of all official tutorials on our
 +
  Proxmox VE YouTube Channel
 +
Tutorials in Spanish language on
 +
  ITexperts.es
 +
  YouTube Play List
 +
See Also
 +
System Requirements
 +
Package Repositories
 +
Host System Administration
 +
Network Configuration
 +
Installation: Tips and Tricks
 +
</pvehide>
 +
<!--PVE_IMPORT_END_MARKER-->
  
Proxmox VE installs the complete operating system and management tools in 3 to 5 minutes (depending on the hardware used).
 
  
Including the following:
 
 
*Complete operating system (Debian Linux, 64-bit)
 
*Partition the hard drive with ext4 (alternative ext3 or xfs) or ZFS
 
*[[Proxmox VE Kernel]] with LXC and KVM support
 
*Complete toolset
 
*Web based management interface
 
 
Please note, by default the complete server is used and all existing data is removed.
 
 
If you want to set custom options for the installer, or need to debug the installation process on your server, you can use some
 
[[Debugging_Installation|special boot options]].
 
 
=== Video tutorials ===
 
 
*List of all official tutorials on our [http://www.youtube.com/proxmoxve Proxmox VE YouTube Channel]
 
*Tutorials in Spanish language on [http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLUULBIhA5QDBdNf1pcTZ5UXhek63Fij8z ITexperts.es YouTube Play List]
 
 
= System requirements =
 
 
For production servers, high quality server equipment is needed. Keep in mind, if you run 10 Virtual Servers on one machine and you then experience a hardware failure, 10 services are lost. Proxmox VE supports clustering, this means that multiple Proxmox VE installations can be centrally managed thanks to the included cluster functionality.
 
 
Proxmox VE can use local storage (DAS), SAN, NAS and also distributed storage (Ceph RBD). For details see [[Storage Model]]
 
 
== Minimum requirements, for evaluation ==
 
 
*CPU: 64bit (Intel EMT64 or AMD64), [[FAQ#Supported_CPU_chips|Intel VT/AMD-V capable CPU]]/Mainboard (for KVM Full Virtualization support)
 
*RAM: 1 GB RAM
 
*Hard drive
 
*One NIC
 
 
== Recommended system requirements ==
 
 
*CPU: 64bit (Intel EMT64 or AMD64), Multi core CPU recommended, [[FAQ#Supported_CPU_chips|Intel VT/AMD-V capable CPU]]/Mainboard (for KVM Full Virtualization support)
 
*RAM: 8 GB is good, more is better
 
*[[Raid controller|Hardware RAID]] with batteries protected write cache (BBU) or flash based protection ([[Software RAID]] is not supported)
 
*Fast hard drives, best results with 15k rpm SAS, Raid10
 
*At least two NIC´s, depending on the used storage technology you need more
 
 
== Certified hardware ==
 
 
Basically you can use any hardware supporting RHEL6, 64 bit. If you are unsure, post in the [http://forum.proxmox.com/ forum].
 
 
= Steps to get your Proxmox VE up and running  =
 
 
== Install Proxmox VE server  ==
 
 
See [[Quick installation]]
 
 
[http://youtu.be/ckvPt1Bp9p0 Proxmox VE installation (Video Tutorial)]
 
 
If you need to install the outdated 1.9 release, check [[Installing Proxmox VE v1.9 post Lenny retirement]]
 
 
== Optional: Install Proxmox VE on Debian 6 Squeeze (64 bit)  ==
 
 
See [[Install Proxmox VE on Debian Squeeze]]
 
 
== Optional: Install Proxmox VE on Debian 7 Wheezy (64 bit)  ==
 
 
See [[Install Proxmox VE on Debian Wheezy]]
 
 
== Optional: Install Proxmox VE on Debian 8 Jessie (64 bit)  ==
 
 
See [[Install Proxmox VE on Debian Jessie]]
 
 
== Optional: Install Proxmox VE over iSCSI  ==
 
 
See [[Proxmox ISCSI installation]]
 
 
== Proxmox VE web interface  ==
 
 
Configuration is done via the Proxmox web interface, just point your browser to the IP address given during installation (<nowiki>https://youripaddress:8006</nowiki>). Please make sure that your browser has the latest Oracle Java browser plugin installed. Proxmox VE is tested for IE9, Firefox 10 and higher, Google Chrome (latest).
 
 
'''Default login is "root" and the root password is defined during the installation process.'''
 
 
=== Configure basic system setting  ===
 
 
Please review the NIC setup, IP and hostname.
 
 
'''Note: changing IP or hostname after cluster creation is not possible (unless you know exactly what you do)'''
 
 
=== Get Appliance Templates  ===
 
 
==== Download  ====
 
 
Just go to your content tab of your storage (e.g. "local") and [[Get Virtual Appliances|download pre-built Virtual Appliances]] directly to your server. This list is maintained by the Proxmox VE team and more and more Appliances will be available. This is the easiest way and a good place to start.
 
 
==== Use a NFS share for ISO´s  ====
 
 
If you have a NFS server you can use a NFS share for storing ISO images. To start, configure the NFS ISO store on the web interface (Configuration/Storage).
 
 
==== Upload from your desktop  ====
 
 
If you already got Virtually Appliances you can upload them via the upload button. To install a virtual machine from an ISO image (using KVM full virtualization) just upload the ISO file via the upload button.
 
 
==== Directly to file system  ====
 
 
Templates and ISO images are stored on the Proxmox VE server (see /var/lib/vz/template/cache for openvz templates and /var/lib/vz/template/iso for ISO images). You can also transfer templates and ISO images via secure copy (scp) to these directories. If you work on a windows desktop, you can use a graphical scp client like [http://winscp.net winscp].
 
 
= Create Virtual Machines =
 
 
== Container (OpenVZ) ==
 
 
[[Image:Screen-create-container-mailgateway.png|thumb]] [[Image:Screen-create-container-mailgateway-log.png|thumb]] [[Image:Screen-virtual-machine-detail1.png|thumb]]
 
 
First [[#Get_Appliance_Templates|get the adequate(s) appliance(s) template(s)]].
 
 
Then just click "Create CT":
 
 
'''General'''
 
 
*Node: If you have several Proxmox VE servers, select the node where you want to create the new container
 
*VM ID: choose a virtual machine identification number, just use the given ID or overwrite the suggested one
 
*Hostname: give a unique server name for the new container
 
*Resource Pool: select the previously resource pool (optional)
 
*Storage: select the storage for your container
 
*Password: set the root password for your container
 
 
'''Template'''
 
 
*Storage: select your template data store (you need to download templates before you can select them here)
 
*Template: choose the template
 
 
'''Resources'''
 
 
*Memory (MB): set the memory (RAM)
 
*Swap (MB): set the swap
 
*Disk size (GB): set the total disk size
 
*CPUs: set the number of CPUs (if you run java inside your container, choose at least 2 here)
 
 
'''Network'''
 
 
*Routed mode (venet): default([http://wiki.openvz.org/Venet venet]) give a unique IP
 
*Briged mode
 
 
- in only some case you need Bridged Ethernet([http://wiki.openvz.org/Veth veth]) (see [http://wiki.openvz.org/Differences_between_venet_and_veth Differences_between_venet_and_veth] on OpenVZ wiki for details) If you select Brigded Ethernet, the IP configuration has to be done in the container, like you would do it on a physical server.
 
 
'''DNS'''
 
 
*DNS Domain: e.g. yourdomain.com
 
*First/Second DNS Servers: enter DNS servers
 
 
'''Confirm'''
 
 
This tab shows a summary, please check if everything is done as needed. If you need to change a setting, you can jump to the previous tabs just by clicking.
 
 
After you clicked "Finish", all settings are applied - wait for completion (this process can take between a view seconds and up to a minute, depends on the used template and your hardware).
 
 
'''CentOS 7'''
 
 
If you can't PING a CentOS 7 container: In order to get rid of problems with venet0 when running a CentOS 7 container (OpenVZ), just activate the patch redhat-add_ip.sh-patch as follows:
 
 
1. transfer the patchfile to your working directory into Proxmox VE host (i.e:/ root) and extract it (unzip)
 
2. perform this command:
 
  # patch -p0 < redhat-add_ip.sh-patch
 
3. stop and start the respective container
 
 
Patch file: http://forum.proxmox.com/threads/22770-fix-for-centos-7-container-networking
 
 
=== Video Tutorials ===
 
 
*See [http://www.youtube.com/proxmoxve Proxmox VE YouTube Channel]
 
 
== Virtual Machines (KVM) ==
 
 
Just click "Create VM":
 
 
=== General ===
 
 
*Node: If you have several Proxmox VE servers, select the node where you want to create the new VM
 
*VM ID: choose a virtual machine identification number, just use the given ID or overwrite the suggested one
 
*Name: choose a name for your VM (this is not the hostname), can be changed any time
 
*Resource Pool: select the previously resoucre pool (optional)
 
 
=== OS ===
 
 
Select the Operating System (OS) of your VM
 
 
=== CD/DVD ===
 
 
*Use CD/DVD disc image file (iso): Select the storage where you previously uploaded your iso images and choose the file
 
*Use physical CD/DVD Drive: choose this to use the CD/DVD from your Proxmox VE node
 
*Do not use any media: choose this if you do not want any media
 
 
=== Hard disk ===
 
 
* Bus/Device: choose the bus type, as long as your guest supports go for ''virtio''
 
* Storage: select the storage where you want to store the disk Disk size (GB): define the size
 
* Format: Define the disk image format. For good performance, go for raw. If you plan to use snapshots, go for qcow2.
 
* Cache: define the cache policy for the virtual disk
 
* Limits: (if necessary) set the maximum transfer speeds
 
 
=== CPU ===
 
 
*Sockets: set the number of CPU sockets
 
*Cores: set the number of CPU Cores per socket
 
*CPU type: select CPU type
 
*Total cores: never use more CPU cores than physical available on the Proxmox VE host
 
 
=== Memory ===
 
 
*Memory (MB): set the memory (RAM) for your VM
 
 
=== Network ===
 
 
*Briged mode: this is the default setting, just choose the Brigde where you want to connect your VM. If you want to use VLAN, you can define the VLAN tag for the VM
 
*NAT mode
 
*No network device
 
*Model: choose the emulated network device, as long as your guest support it, go for virtio
 
*MAC address: use 'auto' or overwrite with a valid and unique MAC address
 
*Rate limit (MB/s): set a speed limit for this network adapter
 
 
=== Confirm ===
 
 
This tab shows a summary, please check if everything is done as needed. If you need to change a setting, you can jump to the previous tabs just by clicking. After you clicked "Finish", all settings are applied - wait for completion (this process just takes a second).
 
 
== Video Tutorials ==
 
 
*See [http://www.youtube.com/proxmoxve Proxmox VE YouTube Channel]
 
*[[Windows 2003 Server on KVM (Video)]]
 
*[[Hardware setup for KVM guests (Video)]]
 
 
== Managing Virtual Machines ==
 
 
Go to "VM Manager/Virtual Machines" to see a list of your Virtual Machines.
 
 
Basic tasks can be done by clicking on the red arrow - drop down menu:
 
 
*start, restart, shutdown, stop
 
*migrate: migrate a Virtual Machine to another physical host (you need at least two Proxmox VE servers - see [[Proxmox VE Cluster]]
 
*console: using the VNC console for container virtualization automatically logs in via root. For managing KVM Virtual Machine, the console shows the screen of the full virtualized machine)
 
 
For a '''detailed view''' and '''configuration changes''' just click on a Virtual Machine row in the list of VMs.
 
 
"Logs" on a container Virtual Machine:
 
 
*Boot/Init: shows the Boot/Init logs generated during start or stop
 
*Command: see the current/last executed task
 
*Syslog: see the real time syslog of the Virtual Machine
 
 
== Networking and Firewall ==
 
 
A detail guide on how to virtualize your VPS network infrastructure. [http://www.fridu.org/fulup-posts/40-hosting-a-sysadmin/52-openvz-virtualization#architecture]
 
 
On adding a second network card and enabling it on the '''Configuration -&gt; System -&gt; vmbr0''' page and choosing the '''eth1''' card as the the bridged interface, the '''/etc/network/interfaces''' file will look like:
 
<pre># network interface settings
 
auto lo
 
iface lo inet loopback
 
 
iface eth0 inet manual
 
 
iface eth1 inet manual
 
 
auto vmbr0
 
iface vmbr0 inet static
 
        address  192.168.1.100
 
        netmask  255.255.255.0
 
        gateway  192.168.1.1
 
        bridge_ports eth1
 
        bridge_stp off
 
        bridge_fd 0
 
 
 
</pre>
 
 
[[Category:HOWTO]] [[Category:Installation]]
 
[[Category:HOWTO]] [[Category:Installation]]

Latest revision as of 11:23, 16 July 2019

Proxmox VE is based on Debian, therefore the disk image (ISO file) provided by us includes a complete Debian system ("stretch" for version 5.x) as well as all necessary Proxmox VE packages.

Using the installer will guide you through the setup, allowing you to partition the local disk(s), apply basic system configurations (e.g. timezone, language, network) and install all required packages. Using the provided ISO will get you started in just a few minutes, that’s why we recommend this method for new and existing users.

Alternatively, Proxmox VE can be installed on top of an existing Debian system. This option is only recommended for advanced users since detailed knowledge about Proxmox VE is necessary.

Using the Proxmox VE Installer

You can download the ISO from https://www.proxmox.com/en/downloads. It includes the following:

  • Complete operating system (Debian Linux, 64-bit)

  • The Proxmox VE installer, which partitions the local disk(s) with ext4, ext3, xfs or ZFS and installs the operating system.

  • Proxmox VE kernel (Linux) with LXC and KVM support

  • Complete toolset for administering virtual machines, containers and all necessary resources

  • Web based management interface for using the toolset

Note During the installation process, the complete server is used by default and all existing data is removed.

Please insert the installation media (e.g. USB stick, CD-ROM) and boot from it.

screenshot/pve-grub-menu.png

After choosing the correct entry (e.g. Boot from USB) the Proxmox VE menu will be displayed, you can now select one of the following options:

Install Proxmox VE

Start normal installation.

Tip It is possible to only use the keyboard to progress through the installation wizard. Buttons can be pressed by pressing down the ALT key, combined with the underlined character from the respective Button. For example, ALT + N to press a Next button.
Install Proxmox VE (Debug mode)

Start installation in debug mode. It opens a shell console at several installation steps, so that you can debug things if something goes wrong. Please press CTRL-D to exit those debug consoles and continue installation. This option is mostly for developers and not meant for general use.

Rescue Boot

This option allows you to boot an existing installation. It searches all attached hard disks and, if it finds an existing installation, boots directly into that disk using the existing Linux kernel. This can be useful if there are problems with the boot block (grub), or the BIOS is unable to read the boot block from the disk.

Test Memory

Runs memtest86+. This is useful to check if your memory is functional and error free.

screenshot/pve-select-target-disk.png

You normally select Install Proxmox VE to start the installation. After that you get prompted to select the target hard disk(s). The Options button lets you select the target file system, which defaults to ext4. The installer uses LVM if you select ext3, ext4 or xfs as file system, and offers additional option to restrict LVM space (see below)

You can also use ZFS as file system. ZFS supports several software RAID levels, so this is specially useful if you do not have a hardware RAID controller. The Options button lets you select the ZFS RAID level, and you can choose disks there. Additionally you can set additional options (see below).

screenshot/pve-select-location.png

The next page just asks for basic configuration options like your location, the time zone and keyboard layout. The location is used to select a download server near you to speed up updates. The installer is usually able to auto detect those settings, so you only need to change them in rare situations when auto detection fails, or when you want to use some special keyboard layout not commonly used in your country.

screenshot/pve-set-password.png

You then need to specify an email address and the superuser (root) password. The password must have at least 5 characters, but we highly recommend to use stronger passwords - here are some guidelines:

  • Use a minimum password length of 12 to 14 characters.

  • Include lowercase and uppercase alphabetic characters, numbers and symbols.

  • Avoid character repetition, keyboard patterns, dictionary words, letter or number sequences, usernames, relative or pet names, romantic links (current or past) and biographical information (e.g., ID numbers, ancestors' names or dates).

It is sometimes necessary to send notifications to the system administrator, for example:

  • Information about available package updates.

  • Error messages from periodic CRON jobs.

All those notification mails will be sent to the specified email address.

screenshot/pve-setup-network.png

The last step is the network configuration. Please note that you can use either IPv4 or IPv6 here, but not both. If you want to configure a dual stack node, you can easily do that after installation.

screenshot/pve-installation.png

If you press Next now, installation starts to format disks, and copies packages to the target. Please wait until that is finished, then remove the installation media and restart your system.

Further configuration is done via the Proxmox web interface. Just point your browser to the IP address given during installation (https://youripaddress:8006).

Note Default login is "root" (realm PAM) and the root password is defined during the installation process.

Advanced LVM Configuration Options

The installer creates a Volume Group (VG) called pve, and additional Logical Volumes (LVs) called root, data and swap. The size of those volumes can be controlled with:

hdsize

Defines the total HD size to be used. This way you can save free space on the HD for further partitioning (i.e. for an additional PV and VG on the same hard disk that can be used for LVM storage).

swapsize

Defines the size of the swap volume. The default is the size of the installed memory, minimum 4 GB and maximum 8 GB. The resulting value cannot be greater than hdsize/8.

Note If set to 0, no swap volume will be created.
maxroot

Defines the maximum size of the root volume, which stores the operation system. The maximum limit of the root volume size is hdsize/4.

maxvz

Defines the maximum size of the data volume. The actual size of the data volume is:

datasize = hdsize - rootsize - swapsize - minfree

Where datasize cannot be bigger than maxvz.

Note In case of LVM thin, the data pool will only be created if datasize is bigger than 4GB.
Note If set to 0, no data volume will be created and the storage configuration will be adapted accordingly.
minfree

Defines the amount of free space left in LVM volume group pve. With more than 128GB storage available the default is 16GB, else hdsize/8 will be used.

Note LVM requires free space in the VG for snapshot creation (not required for lvmthin snapshots).

Advanced ZFS Configuration Options

The installer creates a ZFS pool rpool. When selecting ZFS, no swap space is created by default. You can leave some unpartitioned space for swap or create a swap zvol after installation, though the latter can lead to problems (see ZFS swap notes).

ashift

Defines the ashift value for the created pool. The ashift needs to be set at least to the sector-size of the underlying disks (2 to the power of ashift is the sector-size), or any disk, which might be put in the pool (e.g. during replacing a defective disk).

compress

Defines whether compression is enabled for rpool.

checksum

Defines which checksumming algorithm should be used for rpool.

copies

Defines the copies parameter for rpool. Check the zfs(8) manpage for the semantics, and why this does not replace redundancy on disk-level.

hdsize

Defines the total HD size to be used. This way you can save free space on the HD(s) for further partitioning (e.g. for creating a swap-partition). hdsize is only honored for bootable disks, i.e., only the first disk or mirror for RAID0, RAID1 or RAID10, and all disks in RAID-Z[123].

ZFS Performance Tips

ZFS uses a lot of memory, so it is best to add additional RAM if you want to use ZFS. A good calculation is 4GB plus 1GB RAM for each TB RAW disk space.

ZFS also provides the feature to use a fast SSD drive as write cache. The write cache is called the ZFS Intent Log (ZIL). You can add that after installation using the following command:

zpool add <pool-name> log </dev/path_to_fast_ssd>

Video Tutorials