Difference between revisions of "Installation"

From Proxmox VE
Jump to: navigation, search
 
(5 intermediate revisions by the same user not shown)
Line 4: Line 4:
 
[[Category:Reference Documentation]]
 
[[Category:Reference Documentation]]
 
<pvehide>
 
<pvehide>
Proxmox VE is based on Debian and comes with an installation CD-ROM
+
Proxmox VE is based on Debian, therefore the disk image (ISO file) provided
which includes a complete Debian ("jessie" for Proxmox VE 4.x) system as
+
by us includes a complete Debian system ("stretch" for version 5.x) as
well as all necessary Proxmox VE packages. The
+
well as all necessary Proxmox VE packages.
installer just asks you a few questions, then partitions the local
+
Using the installer will guide you through the setup, allowing
disk(s), installs all required packages, and configures the system
+
you to partition the local disk(s), apply basic system configurations
including a basic network setup. You can get a fully functional system
+
(e.g. timezone, language, network) and install all required packages.
within a few minutes. This is the preferred and recommended installation method.
+
Using the provided ISO will get you started in just a few minutes,
Alternatively, Proxmox VE can be installed on top of an existing Debian system.
+
that&#8217;s why we recommend this method for new and existing users.
This option is only recommended for advanced users since detail knowledge about
+
Alternatively, Proxmox VE can be installed on top of an existing Debian
Proxmox VE is necessary.
+
system. This option is only recommended for advanced users since
Using the Proxmox VE Installation CD-ROM
+
detailed knowledge about Proxmox VE is necessary.
Includes the following:
+
Using the Proxmox VE Installer
 +
You can download the ISO from https://www.proxmox.com/en/downloads.
 +
It includes the following:
 
Complete operating system (Debian Linux, 64-bit)
 
Complete operating system (Debian Linux, 64-bit)
Partition the hard drive with ext4 (alternative ext3 or xfs) or ZFS
+
The Proxmox VE installer, which partitions the local disk(s) with ext4,
Proxmox VE Kernel with LXC and KVM support
+
  ext3, xfs or ZFS and installs the operating system.
Complete toolset
+
Proxmox VE kernel (Linux) with LXC and KVM support
Web based management interface
+
Complete toolset for administering virtual machines, containers and
By default, the complete server is used and all existing data is
+
  all necessary resources
removed.
+
Web based management interface for using the toolset
Please insert the installation CD-ROM, then boot from that
+
During the installation process, the complete server
drive. Immediately afterwards you can choose the following menu
+
is used by default and all existing data is removed.
options:
+
Please insert the installation media (e.g. USB stick, CD-ROM) and boot
 +
from it.
 +
After choosing the correct entry (e.g. Boot from USB) the Proxmox VE menu
 +
will be displayed, you can now select one of the following options:
 
Install Proxmox VE
 
Install Proxmox VE
 
Start normal installation.
 
Start normal installation.
 +
It is possible to only use the keyboard to progress through the
 +
installation wizard. Buttons can be pressed by pressing down the ALT
 +
key, combined with the underlined character from the respective Button.
 +
For example, ALT + N to press a Next button.
 
Install Proxmox VE (Debug mode)
 
Install Proxmox VE (Debug mode)
 
Start installation in debug mode. It opens a shell console at several
 
Start installation in debug mode. It opens a shell console at several
Line 49: Line 58:
 
ext4 or xfs as file system, and offers additional option to
 
ext4 or xfs as file system, and offers additional option to
 
restrict LVM space (see below)
 
restrict LVM space (see below)
If you have more than one disk, you can also use ZFS as file system.
+
You can also use ZFS as file system. ZFS supports several software RAID
ZFS supports several software RAID levels, so this is specially useful
+
levels, so this is specially useful if you do not have a hardware RAID
if you do not have a hardware RAID controller. The Options button
+
controller. The Options button lets you select the ZFS RAID level, and
lets you select the ZFS RAID level, and you can choose disks there.
+
you can choose disks there. Additionally you can set additional options (see
The next pages just ask for basic configuration options like time
+
below).
zone and keyboard layout. You also need to specify your email address
+
The next page just asks for basic configuration options like your
and superuser (root) password (must have at least 5 characters).
+
location, the time zone and keyboard layout. The location is used to
 +
select a download server near you to speed up updates. The installer is
 +
usually able to auto detect those settings, so you only need to change
 +
them in rare situations when auto detection fails, or when you want to
 +
use some special keyboard layout not commonly used in your country.
 +
You then need to specify an email address and the superuser (root)
 +
password. The password must have at least 5 characters, but we highly
 +
recommend to use stronger passwords - here are some guidelines:
 +
Use a minimum password length of 12 to 14 characters.
 +
Include lowercase and uppercase alphabetic characters, numbers and symbols.
 +
Avoid character repetition, keyboard patterns, dictionary words,
 +
  letter or number sequences, usernames, relative or pet names,
 +
  romantic links (current or past) and biographical information (e.g.,
 +
  ID numbers, ancestors' names or dates).
 +
It is sometimes necessary to send notifications to the system
 +
administrator, for example:
 +
Information about available package updates.
 +
Error messages from periodic CRON jobs.
 +
All those notification mails will be sent to the specified email
 +
address.
 
The last step is the network configuration. Please note that you can
 
The last step is the network configuration. Please note that you can
 
use either IPv4 or IPv6 here, but not both. If you want to configure a
 
use either IPv4 or IPv6 here, but not both. If you want to configure a
Line 61: Line 89:
 
If you press Next now, installation starts to format disks, and
 
If you press Next now, installation starts to format disks, and
 
copies packages to the target. Please wait until that is finished,
 
copies packages to the target. Please wait until that is finished,
then reboot the server.
+
then remove the installation media and restart your system.
 
Further configuration is done via the Proxmox web interface. Just
 
Further configuration is done via the Proxmox web interface. Just
 
point your browser to the IP address given during installation
 
point your browser to the IP address given during installation
Line 76: Line 104:
 
and VG on the same hard disk that can be used for LVM storage).
 
and VG on the same hard disk that can be used for LVM storage).
 
swapsize
 
swapsize
To define the size of the swap volume. Default is the same size as
+
Defines the size of the swap volume. The default is the size of the
installed RAM, with 4GB minimum and hdsize/8 as maximum.
+
installed memory, minimum 4 GB and maximum 8 GB. The resulting value cannot
 +
be greater than hdsize/8.
 +
If set to 0, no swap volume will be created.
 
maxroot
 
maxroot
The root volume size. The root volume stores the whole operation
+
Defines the maximum size of the root volume, which stores the operation
system.
+
system. The maximum limit of the root volume size is hdsize/4.
 
maxvz
 
maxvz
Define the size of the data volume.
+
Defines the maximum size of the data volume. The actual size of the data
 +
volume is:
 +
datasize = hdsize - rootsize - swapsize - minfree
 +
Where datasize cannot be bigger than maxvz.
 +
In case of LVM thin, the data pool will only be created if datasize
 +
is bigger than 4GB.
 +
If set to 0, no data volume will be created and the storage
 +
configuration will be adapted accordingly.
 
minfree
 
minfree
To define the amount of free space left in LVM volume group pve.
+
Defines the amount of free space left in LVM volume group pve.
16GB is the default if storage available &gt; 128GB, hdsize/8 otherwise.
+
With more than 128GB storage available the default is 16GB, else hdsize/8
 +
will be used.
 
LVM requires free space in the VG for snapshot creation (not
 
LVM requires free space in the VG for snapshot creation (not
 
required for lvmthin snapshots).
 
required for lvmthin snapshots).
 +
Advanced ZFS Configuration Options
 +
The installer creates a ZFS pool rpool. When selecting ZFS, no swap space is
 +
created by default. You can leave some unpartitioned space for swap or create
 +
a swap zvol after installation, though the latter can lead to problems
 +
(see ZFS swap notes).
 +
ashift
 +
Defines the ashift value for the created pool. The ashift needs
 +
to be set at least to the sector-size of the underlying disks (2 to
 +
the power of ashift is the sector-size), or any disk,
 +
which might be put in the pool (e.g. during replacing a defective disk).
 +
compress
 +
Defines whether compression is enabled for rpool.
 +
checksum
 +
Defines which checksumming algorithm should be used for rpool.
 +
copies
 +
Defines the copies parameter for rpool. Check the zfs(8) manpage for the
 +
semantics, and why this does not replace redundancy on disk-level.
 +
hdsize
 +
Defines the total HD size to be used. This way you can save free
 +
space on the HD(s) for further partitioning (e.g. for creating a swap-partition).
 +
hdsize is only honored for bootable disks, i.e., only the first disk or
 +
mirror for RAID0, RAID1 or RAID10, and all disks in RAID-Z[123].
 
ZFS Performance Tips
 
ZFS Performance Tips
 
ZFS uses a lot of memory, so it is best to add additional RAM if you
 
ZFS uses a lot of memory, so it is best to add additional RAM if you
Line 96: Line 156:
 
installation using the following command:
 
installation using the following command:
 
zpool add &lt;pool-name&gt; log &lt;/dev/path_to_fast_ssd&gt;
 
zpool add &lt;pool-name&gt; log &lt;/dev/path_to_fast_ssd&gt;
Install Proxmox VE on Debian Jessie
 
 
Install from USB Stick
 
Install from USB Stick
 +
Install Proxmox VE on Debian Stretch
 
Video Tutorials
 
Video Tutorials
 
List of all official tutorials on our
 
List of all official tutorials on our

Latest revision as of 11:23, 16 July 2019

Proxmox VE is based on Debian, therefore the disk image (ISO file) provided by us includes a complete Debian system ("stretch" for version 5.x) as well as all necessary Proxmox VE packages.

Using the installer will guide you through the setup, allowing you to partition the local disk(s), apply basic system configurations (e.g. timezone, language, network) and install all required packages. Using the provided ISO will get you started in just a few minutes, that’s why we recommend this method for new and existing users.

Alternatively, Proxmox VE can be installed on top of an existing Debian system. This option is only recommended for advanced users since detailed knowledge about Proxmox VE is necessary.

Using the Proxmox VE Installer

You can download the ISO from https://www.proxmox.com/en/downloads. It includes the following:

  • Complete operating system (Debian Linux, 64-bit)

  • The Proxmox VE installer, which partitions the local disk(s) with ext4, ext3, xfs or ZFS and installs the operating system.

  • Proxmox VE kernel (Linux) with LXC and KVM support

  • Complete toolset for administering virtual machines, containers and all necessary resources

  • Web based management interface for using the toolset

Note During the installation process, the complete server is used by default and all existing data is removed.

Please insert the installation media (e.g. USB stick, CD-ROM) and boot from it.

screenshot/pve-grub-menu.png

After choosing the correct entry (e.g. Boot from USB) the Proxmox VE menu will be displayed, you can now select one of the following options:

Install Proxmox VE

Start normal installation.

Tip It is possible to only use the keyboard to progress through the installation wizard. Buttons can be pressed by pressing down the ALT key, combined with the underlined character from the respective Button. For example, ALT + N to press a Next button.
Install Proxmox VE (Debug mode)

Start installation in debug mode. It opens a shell console at several installation steps, so that you can debug things if something goes wrong. Please press CTRL-D to exit those debug consoles and continue installation. This option is mostly for developers and not meant for general use.

Rescue Boot

This option allows you to boot an existing installation. It searches all attached hard disks and, if it finds an existing installation, boots directly into that disk using the existing Linux kernel. This can be useful if there are problems with the boot block (grub), or the BIOS is unable to read the boot block from the disk.

Test Memory

Runs memtest86+. This is useful to check if your memory is functional and error free.

screenshot/pve-select-target-disk.png

You normally select Install Proxmox VE to start the installation. After that you get prompted to select the target hard disk(s). The Options button lets you select the target file system, which defaults to ext4. The installer uses LVM if you select ext3, ext4 or xfs as file system, and offers additional option to restrict LVM space (see below)

You can also use ZFS as file system. ZFS supports several software RAID levels, so this is specially useful if you do not have a hardware RAID controller. The Options button lets you select the ZFS RAID level, and you can choose disks there. Additionally you can set additional options (see below).

screenshot/pve-select-location.png

The next page just asks for basic configuration options like your location, the time zone and keyboard layout. The location is used to select a download server near you to speed up updates. The installer is usually able to auto detect those settings, so you only need to change them in rare situations when auto detection fails, or when you want to use some special keyboard layout not commonly used in your country.

screenshot/pve-set-password.png

You then need to specify an email address and the superuser (root) password. The password must have at least 5 characters, but we highly recommend to use stronger passwords - here are some guidelines:

  • Use a minimum password length of 12 to 14 characters.

  • Include lowercase and uppercase alphabetic characters, numbers and symbols.

  • Avoid character repetition, keyboard patterns, dictionary words, letter or number sequences, usernames, relative or pet names, romantic links (current or past) and biographical information (e.g., ID numbers, ancestors' names or dates).

It is sometimes necessary to send notifications to the system administrator, for example:

  • Information about available package updates.

  • Error messages from periodic CRON jobs.

All those notification mails will be sent to the specified email address.

screenshot/pve-setup-network.png

The last step is the network configuration. Please note that you can use either IPv4 or IPv6 here, but not both. If you want to configure a dual stack node, you can easily do that after installation.

screenshot/pve-installation.png

If you press Next now, installation starts to format disks, and copies packages to the target. Please wait until that is finished, then remove the installation media and restart your system.

Further configuration is done via the Proxmox web interface. Just point your browser to the IP address given during installation (https://youripaddress:8006).

Note Default login is "root" (realm PAM) and the root password is defined during the installation process.

Advanced LVM Configuration Options

The installer creates a Volume Group (VG) called pve, and additional Logical Volumes (LVs) called root, data and swap. The size of those volumes can be controlled with:

hdsize

Defines the total HD size to be used. This way you can save free space on the HD for further partitioning (i.e. for an additional PV and VG on the same hard disk that can be used for LVM storage).

swapsize

Defines the size of the swap volume. The default is the size of the installed memory, minimum 4 GB and maximum 8 GB. The resulting value cannot be greater than hdsize/8.

Note If set to 0, no swap volume will be created.
maxroot

Defines the maximum size of the root volume, which stores the operation system. The maximum limit of the root volume size is hdsize/4.

maxvz

Defines the maximum size of the data volume. The actual size of the data volume is:

datasize = hdsize - rootsize - swapsize - minfree

Where datasize cannot be bigger than maxvz.

Note In case of LVM thin, the data pool will only be created if datasize is bigger than 4GB.
Note If set to 0, no data volume will be created and the storage configuration will be adapted accordingly.
minfree

Defines the amount of free space left in LVM volume group pve. With more than 128GB storage available the default is 16GB, else hdsize/8 will be used.

Note LVM requires free space in the VG for snapshot creation (not required for lvmthin snapshots).

Advanced ZFS Configuration Options

The installer creates a ZFS pool rpool. When selecting ZFS, no swap space is created by default. You can leave some unpartitioned space for swap or create a swap zvol after installation, though the latter can lead to problems (see ZFS swap notes).

ashift

Defines the ashift value for the created pool. The ashift needs to be set at least to the sector-size of the underlying disks (2 to the power of ashift is the sector-size), or any disk, which might be put in the pool (e.g. during replacing a defective disk).

compress

Defines whether compression is enabled for rpool.

checksum

Defines which checksumming algorithm should be used for rpool.

copies

Defines the copies parameter for rpool. Check the zfs(8) manpage for the semantics, and why this does not replace redundancy on disk-level.

hdsize

Defines the total HD size to be used. This way you can save free space on the HD(s) for further partitioning (e.g. for creating a swap-partition). hdsize is only honored for bootable disks, i.e., only the first disk or mirror for RAID0, RAID1 or RAID10, and all disks in RAID-Z[123].

ZFS Performance Tips

ZFS uses a lot of memory, so it is best to add additional RAM if you want to use ZFS. A good calculation is 4GB plus 1GB RAM for each TB RAW disk space.

ZFS also provides the feature to use a fast SSD drive as write cache. The write cache is called the ZFS Intent Log (ZIL). You can add that after installation using the following command:

zpool add <pool-name> log </dev/path_to_fast_ssd>

Video Tutorials