Difference between revisions of "Installation"

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{{Languages|en=Installation|de=Installation (de)}}
+
<!--PVE_IMPORT_START_MARKER-->
 +
<!-- Do not edit - this is autogenerated content -->
 +
{{#pvedocs:pve-installation-plain.html}}
 +
[[Category:Reference Documentation]]
 +
<pvehide>
 +
Proxmox VE is based on Debian. This is why the install disk images (ISO files)
 +
provided by Proxmox include a complete Debian system (Debian 10 Buster for
 +
Proxmox VE version 6.x) as well as all necessary Proxmox VE packages.
 +
The installer will guide through the setup, allowing you to partition the local
 +
disk(s), apply basic system configurations (for example, timezone, language,
 +
network) and install all required packages. This process should not take more
 +
than a few minutes. Installing with the provided ISO is the recommended method
 +
for new and existing users.
 +
Alternatively, Proxmox VE can be installed on top of an existing Debian system. This
 +
option is only recommended for advanced users because detailed knowledge about
 +
Proxmox VE is required.
 +
Using the Proxmox VE Installer
 +
The installer ISO image includes the following:
 +
Complete operating system (Debian Linux, 64-bit)
 +
The Proxmox VE installer, which partitions the local disk(s) with ext4, ext3, xfs
 +
  or ZFS and installs the operating system.
 +
Proxmox VE Linux kernel with KVM and LXC support
 +
Complete toolset for administering virtual machines, containers, the host
 +
  system, clusters and all necessary resources
 +
Web-based management interface
 +
All existing data on the for installation selected drives will be removed
 +
during the installation process. The installer does not add boot menu entries
 +
for other operating systems.
 +
Please insert the prepared installation media
 +
(for example, USB flash drive or CD-ROM) and boot from it.
 +
Make sure that booting from the installation medium (for example, USB) is
 +
enabled in your servers firmware settings.
 +
After choosing the correct entry (e.g. Boot from USB) the Proxmox VE menu will be
 +
displayed and one of the following options can be selected:
 +
Install Proxmox VE
 +
Starts the normal installation.
 +
It&#8217;s possible to use the installation wizard with a keyboard only. Buttons
 +
can be clicked by pressing the ALT key combined with the underlined character
 +
from the respective button. For example, ALT + N to press a Next button.
 +
Install Proxmox VE (Debug mode)
 +
Starts the installation in debug mode. A console will be opened at several
 +
installation steps. This helps to debug the situation if something goes wrong.
 +
To exit a debug console, press CTRL-D. This option can be used to boot a live
 +
system with all basic tools available. You can use it, for example, to
 +
repair a degraded ZFS rpool or fix the
 +
bootloader for an existing Proxmox VE setup.
 +
Rescue Boot
 +
With this option you can boot an existing installation. It searches all attached
 +
hard disks. If it finds an existing installation, it boots directly into that
 +
disk using the Linux kernel from the ISO. This can be useful if there are
 +
problems with the boot block (grub) or the BIOS is unable to read the boot block
 +
from the disk.
 +
Test Memory
 +
Runs memtest86+. This is useful to check if the memory is functional and free
 +
of errors.
 +
After selecting Install Proxmox VE and accepting the EULA, the prompt to select the
 +
target hard disk(s) will appear. The Options button opens the dialog to select
 +
the target file system.
 +
The default file system is ext4. The Logical Volume Manager (LVM) is used when
 +
ext3, ext4 or xfs ist selected. Additional options to restrict LVM space
 +
can be set (see below).
 +
Proxmox VE can be installed on ZFS. As ZFS offers several software RAID levels, this
 +
is an option for systems that don&#8217;t have a hardware RAID controller. The target
 +
disks must be selected in the Options dialog. More ZFS specific settings can
 +
be changed under Advanced Options (see below).
 +
ZFS on top of any hardware RAID is not supported and can result in data
 +
loss.
 +
The next page asks for basic configuration options like the location, the time
 +
zone, and keyboard layout. The location is used to select a download server
 +
close by to speed up updates. The installer usually auto-detects these settings.
 +
They only need to be changed in the rare case that auto detection fails or a
 +
different keyboard layout should be used.
 +
Next the password of the superuser (root) and an email address needs to be
 +
specified. The password must consist of at least 5 characters. It&#8217;s highly
 +
recommended to use a stronger password. Some guidelines are:
 +
Use a minimum password length of 12 to 14 characters.
 +
Include lowercase and uppercase alphabetic characters, numbers, and symbols.
 +
Avoid character repetition, keyboard patterns, common dictionary words,
 +
  letter or number sequences, usernames, relative or pet names, romantic links
 +
  (current or past), and biographical information (for example ID numbers,
 +
  ancestors' names or dates).
 +
The email address is used to send notifications to the system administrator.
 +
For example:
 +
Information about available package updates.
 +
Error messages from periodic CRON jobs.
 +
The last step is the network configuration. Please note that during installation
 +
you can either use an IPv4 or IPv6 address, but not both. To configure a dual
 +
stack node, add additional IP addresses after the installation.
 +
The next step shows a summary of the previously selected options. Re-check every
 +
setting and use the Previous button if a setting needs to be changed. To
 +
accept, press Install. The installation starts to format disks and copies
 +
packages to the target. Please wait until this step has finished; then remove
 +
the installation medium and restart your system.
 +
If the installation failed check out specific errors on the second TTY
 +
(&#8216;CTRL + ALT + F2&#8217;), ensure that the systems meets the
 +
minimum requirements. If the installation
 +
is still not working look at the how to get help chapter.
 +
Further configuration is done via the Proxmox web interface. Point your browser
 +
to the IP address given during installation (https://youripaddress:8006).
 +
Default login is "root" (realm PAM) and the root password is defined
 +
during the installation process.
 +
Advanced LVM Configuration Options
 +
The installer creates a Volume Group (VG) called pve, and additional Logical
 +
Volumes (LVs) called root, data, and swap. To control the size of these
 +
volumes use:
 +
hdsize
 +
Defines the total hard disk size to be used. This way you can reserve free space
 +
on the hard disk for further partitioning (for example for an additional PV and
 +
VG on the same hard disk that can be used for LVM storage).
 +
swapsize
 +
Defines the size of the swap volume. The default is the size of the installed
 +
memory, minimum 4 GB and maximum 8 GB. The resulting value cannot be greater
 +
than hdsize/8.
 +
If set to 0, no swap volume will be created.
 +
maxroot
 +
Defines the maximum size of the root volume, which stores the operation
 +
system. The maximum limit of the root volume size is hdsize/4.
 +
maxvz
 +
Defines the maximum size of the data volume. The actual size of the data
 +
volume is:
 +
datasize = hdsize - rootsize - swapsize - minfree
 +
Where datasize cannot be bigger than maxvz.
 +
In case of LVM thin, the data pool will only be created if datasize is
 +
bigger than 4GB.
 +
If set to 0, no data volume will be created and the storage
 +
configuration will be adapted accordingly.
 +
minfree
 +
Defines the amount of free space left in the LVM volume group pve. With more
 +
than 128GB storage available the default is 16GB, else hdsize/8 will be used.
 +
LVM requires free space in the VG for snapshot creation (not required for
 +
lvmthin snapshots).
 +
Advanced ZFS Configuration Options
 +
The installer creates the ZFS pool rpool. No swap space is created but you can
 +
reserve some unpartitioned space on the install disks for swap. You can also
 +
create a swap zvol after the installation, although this can lead to problems.
 +
(see ZFS swap notes).
 +
ashift
 +
Defines the ashift value for the created pool. The ashift needs to be set at
 +
least to the sector-size of the underlying disks (2 to the power of ashift is
 +
the sector-size), or any disk which might be put in the pool (for example the
 +
replacement of a defective disk).
 +
compress
 +
Defines whether compression is enabled for rpool.
 +
checksum
 +
Defines which checksumming algorithm should be used for rpool.
 +
copies
 +
Defines the copies parameter for rpool. Check the zfs(8) manpage for the
 +
semantics, and why this does not replace redundancy on disk-level.
 +
hdsize
 +
Defines the total hard disk size to be used. This is useful to save free space
 +
on the hard disk(s) for further partitioning (for example to create a
 +
swap-partition). hdsize is only honored for bootable disks, that is only the
 +
first disk or mirror for RAID0, RAID1 or RAID10, and all disks in RAID-Z[123].
 +
ZFS Performance Tips
 +
ZFS works best with a lot of memory. If you intend to use ZFS make sure to have
 +
enough RAM available for it. A good calculation is 4GB plus 1GB RAM for each TB
 +
RAW disk space.
 +
ZFS can use a dedicated drive as write cache, called the ZFS Intent Log (ZIL).
 +
Use a fast drive (SSD) for it. It can be added after installation with the
 +
following command:
 +
# zpool add &lt;pool-name&gt; log &lt;/dev/path_to_fast_ssd&gt;
 +
Prepare Installation Media
 +
link:/wiki/Install_Proxmox_VE_on_Debian_Buster[Install Proxmox VE on Debian Buster]
 +
Video Tutorials
 +
List of all official tutorials on our
 +
  Proxmox VE YouTube Channel
 +
Tutorials in Spanish language on
 +
  ITexperts.es
 +
  YouTube Play List
 +
See Also
 +
System Requirements
 +
Package Repositories
 +
Host System Administration
 +
Network Configuration
 +
Installation: Tips and Tricks
 +
</pvehide>
 +
<!--PVE_IMPORT_END_MARKER-->
  
==Introduction==
 
Proxmox VE installs the complete operating system and management tools in 3 to 5 minutes (depends on the used hardware).
 
  
Including the following:
+
[[Category:HOWTO]] [[Category:Installation]]
 
 
* Complete operating system (Debian Etch 64)
 
* Partition the hard drive with LVM2
 
* Proxmox VE Kernel with OpenVZ and KVM support
 
* Backup/Restore tools
 
* Web based management interface
 
 
 
Please note, the complete server is used and all existing data is removed.
 
 
 
==System requirements==
 
 
 
For production servers, high quality server equipment is needed. Keep in mind, if you run 10 Virtual Servers on one machine and you got a hardware failure, 10 services are lost. Proxmox VE supports clustering, means that multiple Proxmox VE installations can centrally managed via the included cluster functionality.
 
 
 
Proxmox VE uses local storage (DAS), there is no need for expensive SAN equipment.
 
 
 
===Minimum requirements for evaluation:===
 
* CPU: 64bit (Intel EMT64 or AMD64), Intel VT/AMD-V capable CPU/Mainboard (for KVM Full Virtualization support)
 
* Minimum 1024 GB RAM
 
* Hard drive
 
* One NIC
 
 
 
===Recommended system requirements:===
 
* CPU: 64bit (Intel EMT64 or AMD64), Multi core CPU recommended, Intel VT/AMD-V capable CPU/Mainboard (for KVM Full Virtualization support)
 
* Minimum 1 GB RAM, 4 GB is good, more is better
 
* Hardware RAID with batteries backup
 
* Fast hard drives, best results with 15rpm SAS, Raid10
 
* One NIC
 
 
 
===Certified hardware===
 
 
 
Basically you can use all hardware supporting Debian Etch 64 bit. If you are unsure, just pick one of these:
 
 
 
* HP DL380G5
 
* IBM x3650
 
 
 
==Steps to get your Proxmox VE up and running==
 
 
 
===Install Proxmox VE server===
 
 
 
* Download ISO image and burn it on a CD (see [[Downloads]])
 
* Boot from CD and start the automatic installer on your dedicated hardware
 
* Follow the instructions on the screen
 
 
 
===Proxmox VE web interface===
 
Configuration is done via web interface, just point your browser to the given IP address during installation (https://youripaddress). Please make sure that your browser has sun-java plugin installed (GCJ for firefox does not work yet) as this is used for console view. Proxmox VE is tested for IE6/IE7, firefox 2.x and 3.x
 
 
 
'''Default login is "root" with the password "admin"''' - this is also the root account for console access.
 
 
 
====Configure basic system setting====
 
Please review the following settings, see "Configuration/System":
 
* Network
 
* DNS
 
* Time settings
 
* Options: language (for the management web interface)
 
* Options: set the keyboard layout (this is the keyboard layout for Virtual Machines)
 
 
 
====Get Appliance Templates====
 
=====Download=====
 
Just go to "VM Manager/Appliance Templates" and download pre-built Virtual Appliances directly to your server. This list is maintained by the Proxmox team and more and more Appliances will be available. This is the easiest way and a good place to start.
 
 
 
=====Upload from your desktop=====
 
If you already got Virtually Appliances you can upload them via the upload button. To install a virtual machine from an ISO image (using KVM full virtualization) just upload the ISO file via the upload button (limited to 2 GB).
 
 
 
=====Directly to filesystem=====
 
 
 
Templates and ISO images are stored on the Proxmox VE server (see /var/lib/vz/template/cache for openvz templates and /var/lib/vz/iso for ISO images). You can also transfer templates and ISO images via secure copy (scp) to these directories. If you work on a windows desktop, you can use a graphical scp client like [[http://winscp.net winscp]].
 
 
 
====Create the first Virtual Machine (Container (OpenVZ))====
 
[[Image:Screen-create-container-mailgateway.png|thumb|Create Virtual Machine]]
 
[[Image:Screen-create-container-mailgateway-log.png|thumb|Create Virtual Machine - log]]
 
[[Image:Screen-virtual-machine-detail1.png|thumb|Running Virtual Machine]]
 
Go to "VM Manager/Virtual Machines - Create":
 
 
 
'''Configuration:'''
 
* Type: select "Container (OpenVZ)"
 
* Template: select "proxmox-mailgateway" (or whatever you want)
 
* Hostname: give a unique server name
 
* Memory (MB): Memory for containers includes RAM and SWAP space - so as a rule give double memory as you would use on physical hardware. For the proxmox-mailgateway, use 1024 MB.
 
* Password: set the root password
 
* VMID: just use the given ID or overwrite the suggested one
 
* Cluster Node: If you have several Proxmox VE servers, select the node where you want to create the new virtual machine
 
* Start at boot: tick this if you want the Virtual Machine started on reboot of the Proxmox VE server
 
* Disk space (GB): default value 8 GB - please note you can change this later without reboot or modifications within the Virtual Appliance (very cool).
 
 
 
 
 
'''Network:'''
 
 
 
* Network Type: default Virtual Network (venet) - in only some case you need Bridged Ethernet(veth) here (see [[http://wiki.openvz.org/Main_Page OpenVZ wiki]] for details
 
* IP Address: give a unique IP (if you select Brigded Ethernet, the IP configuration has to be done in the Virtual Machine)
 
* DNS Domain: e.g. yourdomain.com
 
* First/Second DNS Servers: enter DNS servers
 
 
 
Now review your settings and create your first Virtual Machine. After you clicked "Create", all settings are applied - wait for completion (this process can take between a view seconds and up to a minute, depends on the used template and your hardware). Now, go to "VM Manager/Virtual Machines - List" to see the newly created Virtual Maschine.
 
 
 
====Create a Fully virtualized Machine (KVM)====
 
 
 
Go to "VM Manager/Virtual Machines - Create":
 
 
 
'''Configuration:'''
 
* Type: select "Fully virtualized (KVM)"
 
* Installation Media: select "cdrom device" (from the Proxmox VE server, or a previously uploaded ISO image)
 
* Name: give a unique name
 
* Disk space (GB): specify the size of the disk - will not preallocated - give enough as changing later is not possible without command line interactions and guest specific issues
 
* Memory (MB): specify memory as you would give on physical hardware (SWAP is handled within the guest)
 
* VMID: just use the given ID or overwrite the suggested one
 
* Cluster Node: If you have several Proxmox VE servers, select the node where you want to create the new virtual machine
 
* Start at boot: tick this if you want the Virtual Machine started on reboot of the Proxmox VE server
 
* Disk type: select IDE, (SCSI is not implemented yet)
 
* Guest Type: select what you need (32 and 64 bit guests are possible)
 
 
 
 
 
'''Network:'''
 
 
 
* Network Type: Bridged Ethernet(tap)
 
* Bridge: select one (default only one is configured)
 
* Network Card: select the emulated hardware - rtl8139 is recommended 
 
 
 
Now review your settings and create your first Virtual Machine. After you clicked "Create", all settings are applied - wait for completion (this process can take between a view seconds and up to a minute, depends on the used template and your hardware). Now, go to "VM Manager/Virtual Machines - List" to see the newly created Virtual Maschine.
 

Latest revision as of 15:54, 21 February 2020

Proxmox VE is based on Debian. This is why the install disk images (ISO files) provided by Proxmox include a complete Debian system (Debian 10 Buster for Proxmox VE version 6.x) as well as all necessary Proxmox VE packages.

The installer will guide through the setup, allowing you to partition the local disk(s), apply basic system configurations (for example, timezone, language, network) and install all required packages. This process should not take more than a few minutes. Installing with the provided ISO is the recommended method for new and existing users.

Alternatively, Proxmox VE can be installed on top of an existing Debian system. This option is only recommended for advanced users because detailed knowledge about Proxmox VE is required.

Using the Proxmox VE Installer

The installer ISO image includes the following:

  • Complete operating system (Debian Linux, 64-bit)

  • The Proxmox VE installer, which partitions the local disk(s) with ext4, ext3, xfs or ZFS and installs the operating system.

  • Proxmox VE Linux kernel with KVM and LXC support

  • Complete toolset for administering virtual machines, containers, the host system, clusters and all necessary resources

  • Web-based management interface

Note All existing data on the for installation selected drives will be removed during the installation process. The installer does not add boot menu entries for other operating systems.

Please insert the prepared installation media (for example, USB flash drive or CD-ROM) and boot from it.

Tip Make sure that booting from the installation medium (for example, USB) is enabled in your servers firmware settings.
screenshot/pve-grub-menu.png

After choosing the correct entry (e.g. Boot from USB) the Proxmox VE menu will be displayed and one of the following options can be selected:

Install Proxmox VE

Starts the normal installation.

Tip It’s possible to use the installation wizard with a keyboard only. Buttons can be clicked by pressing the ALT key combined with the underlined character from the respective button. For example, ALT + N to press a Next button.
Install Proxmox VE (Debug mode)

Starts the installation in debug mode. A console will be opened at several installation steps. This helps to debug the situation if something goes wrong. To exit a debug console, press CTRL-D. This option can be used to boot a live system with all basic tools available. You can use it, for example, to repair a degraded ZFS rpool or fix the bootloader for an existing Proxmox VE setup.

Rescue Boot

With this option you can boot an existing installation. It searches all attached hard disks. If it finds an existing installation, it boots directly into that disk using the Linux kernel from the ISO. This can be useful if there are problems with the boot block (grub) or the BIOS is unable to read the boot block from the disk.

Test Memory

Runs memtest86+. This is useful to check if the memory is functional and free of errors.

screenshot/pve-select-target-disk.png

After selecting Install Proxmox VE and accepting the EULA, the prompt to select the target hard disk(s) will appear. The Options button opens the dialog to select the target file system.

The default file system is ext4. The Logical Volume Manager (LVM) is used when ext3, ext4 or xfs ist selected. Additional options to restrict LVM space can be set (see below).

Proxmox VE can be installed on ZFS. As ZFS offers several software RAID levels, this is an option for systems that don’t have a hardware RAID controller. The target disks must be selected in the Options dialog. More ZFS specific settings can be changed under Advanced Options (see below).

Warning ZFS on top of any hardware RAID is not supported and can result in data loss.
screenshot/pve-select-location.png

The next page asks for basic configuration options like the location, the time zone, and keyboard layout. The location is used to select a download server close by to speed up updates. The installer usually auto-detects these settings. They only need to be changed in the rare case that auto detection fails or a different keyboard layout should be used.

screenshot/pve-set-password.png

Next the password of the superuser (root) and an email address needs to be specified. The password must consist of at least 5 characters. It’s highly recommended to use a stronger password. Some guidelines are:

  • Use a minimum password length of 12 to 14 characters.

  • Include lowercase and uppercase alphabetic characters, numbers, and symbols.

  • Avoid character repetition, keyboard patterns, common dictionary words, letter or number sequences, usernames, relative or pet names, romantic links (current or past), and biographical information (for example ID numbers, ancestors' names or dates).

The email address is used to send notifications to the system administrator. For example:

  • Information about available package updates.

  • Error messages from periodic CRON jobs.

screenshot/pve-setup-network.png

The last step is the network configuration. Please note that during installation you can either use an IPv4 or IPv6 address, but not both. To configure a dual stack node, add additional IP addresses after the installation.

screenshot/pve-installation.png

The next step shows a summary of the previously selected options. Re-check every setting and use the Previous button if a setting needs to be changed. To accept, press Install. The installation starts to format disks and copies packages to the target. Please wait until this step has finished; then remove the installation medium and restart your system.

screenshot/pve-install-summary.png

If the installation failed check out specific errors on the second TTY (‘CTRL + ALT + F2’), ensure that the systems meets the minimum requirements. If the installation is still not working look at the how to get help chapter.

Further configuration is done via the Proxmox web interface. Point your browser to the IP address given during installation (https://youripaddress:8006).

Note Default login is "root" (realm PAM) and the root password is defined during the installation process.

Advanced LVM Configuration Options

The installer creates a Volume Group (VG) called pve, and additional Logical Volumes (LVs) called root, data, and swap. To control the size of these volumes use:

hdsize

Defines the total hard disk size to be used. This way you can reserve free space on the hard disk for further partitioning (for example for an additional PV and VG on the same hard disk that can be used for LVM storage).

swapsize

Defines the size of the swap volume. The default is the size of the installed memory, minimum 4 GB and maximum 8 GB. The resulting value cannot be greater than hdsize/8.

Note If set to 0, no swap volume will be created.
maxroot

Defines the maximum size of the root volume, which stores the operation system. The maximum limit of the root volume size is hdsize/4.

maxvz

Defines the maximum size of the data volume. The actual size of the data volume is:

datasize = hdsize - rootsize - swapsize - minfree

Where datasize cannot be bigger than maxvz.

Note In case of LVM thin, the data pool will only be created if datasize is bigger than 4GB.
Note If set to 0, no data volume will be created and the storage configuration will be adapted accordingly.
minfree

Defines the amount of free space left in the LVM volume group pve. With more than 128GB storage available the default is 16GB, else hdsize/8 will be used.

Note LVM requires free space in the VG for snapshot creation (not required for lvmthin snapshots).

Advanced ZFS Configuration Options

The installer creates the ZFS pool rpool. No swap space is created but you can reserve some unpartitioned space on the install disks for swap. You can also create a swap zvol after the installation, although this can lead to problems. (see ZFS swap notes).

ashift

Defines the ashift value for the created pool. The ashift needs to be set at least to the sector-size of the underlying disks (2 to the power of ashift is the sector-size), or any disk which might be put in the pool (for example the replacement of a defective disk).

compress

Defines whether compression is enabled for rpool.

checksum

Defines which checksumming algorithm should be used for rpool.

copies

Defines the copies parameter for rpool. Check the zfs(8) manpage for the semantics, and why this does not replace redundancy on disk-level.

hdsize

Defines the total hard disk size to be used. This is useful to save free space on the hard disk(s) for further partitioning (for example to create a swap-partition). hdsize is only honored for bootable disks, that is only the first disk or mirror for RAID0, RAID1 or RAID10, and all disks in RAID-Z[123].

ZFS Performance Tips

ZFS works best with a lot of memory. If you intend to use ZFS make sure to have enough RAM available for it. A good calculation is 4GB plus 1GB RAM for each TB RAW disk space.

ZFS can use a dedicated drive as write cache, called the ZFS Intent Log (ZIL). Use a fast drive (SSD) for it. It can be added after installation with the following command:

# zpool add <pool-name> log </dev/path_to_fast_ssd>
link:/wiki/Install_Proxmox_VE_on_Debian_Buster[Install Proxmox VE on Debian Buster]

Video Tutorials