Proxmox VE Firewall
Proxmox VE Firewall provides an easy way to protect your IT infrastructure. You can easily setup firewall rules for all hosts inside a cluster, or define rules for virtual machines and containers. Features like firewall macros, security groups, IP sets and aliases helps to make that task easier.
While all configuration is stored on the cluster file system, the iptables based firewall runs on each cluster node, and thus provides full isolation between virtual machines. The distributed nature of this system also provides much higher bandwidth than a central firewall solution.
The Proxmox VE firewall groups the network into the following logical zones:
- host: traffic from/to a cluster node
- vm: traffic from/to a specific VM
For each zone, you can define firewall rules for incoming and/or outgoing traffic.
All firewall related configuration is stored on the proxmox cluster file system. So those files are automatically distributed to all cluster nodes, and the 'pve-firewall' service updates the underlying iptables rules automatically on any change. Any configuration can be done using the GUI, so the following configuration file snippets are just for completeness.
Cluster wide configuration is stored at:
The firewall is completely disabled by default, so you need to set the enable option here:
[OPTIONS] # enable firewall (cluster wide setting, default is disabled) enable: 1
The cluster wide configuration can contain the following data:
- IP set definitions
- alias definitions
- security group definitions
- cluster wide firewall rule for all nodes
VM firewall configuration is read from:
and contains the following data:
- IP set definitions
- alias definitions
- firewall rules for this VM
- VM specific options
And finally, any host related configuration is read from:
This is useful if you want to overwrite rules from cluster.fw config. You can also increase log verbosity, and set netfilter related options.
enabling firewall for qemu guest and openvz veth
For qemu guest and openvz veth interfaces, you need to enabled firewall on the virtual network interface configuration.
Any firewall rule consists of a direction ('IN' or 'OUT') and an action (ACCEPT, DENY, REJECT). Additional options can be used to refine rule matches. Here are some examples:
[RULES] #TYPE ACTION [OPTIONS] #TYPE MACRO(ACTION) [OPTIONS] # -i <INTERFACE> # -source <SOURCE> # -dest <DEST> # -p <PROTOCOL> # -dport <DESTINATION_PORT> # -sport <SOURCE_PORT> IN SSH(ACCEPT) -i net0 IN SSH(ACCEPT) -i net0 # a comment IN SSH(ACCEPT) -i net0 -source 192.168.2.192 # only allow SSH from 192.168.2.192 IN SSH(ACCEPT) -i net0 -source 10.0.0.1-10.0.0.10 # accept SSH for ip range IN SSH(ACCEPT) -i net0 -source 10.0.0.1,10.0.0.2,10.0.0.3 #accept ssh for ip list IN SSH(ACCEPT) -i net0 -source +mynetgroup # accept ssh for ipset mynetgroup IN SSH(ACCEPT) -i net0 -source myserveralias #accept ssh for alias myserveralias |IN SSH(ACCEPT) -i net0 # disabled rule
A security group is a group a rules, defined at cluster level, which can be used in all vms rules.
You can defined for example, a group "webserver", with http and https open rules
[group webserver] IN ACCEPT -p tcp -dport 80 IN ACCEPT -p tcp -dport 443
Then, you can add this group in a vm firewall
[RULES] GROUP webserver
IP Aliases allows you to associate IP addresses of Networks with a name. You can refer to those names:
- inside IP set definitions
- in 'source' and 'dest' properties of firewall rules
Standard IP alias 'local_network'
This alias is automatically defined. Please use the following command to see assigned values:
# pve-firewall localnet local hostname: example local IP address: 192.168.2.100 network auto detect: 192.168.0.0/20 using detected local_network: 192.168.0.0/20
The firewall set up rules to allow everything needed for cluster communication (corosync, API, SSH).
The user can overwrite this values in the cluster.fw alias section. If you use a single host on a public network, it is better to assign the local IP address
# --- example: /etc/pve/firewall/cluster.fw --- [ALIASES] local_network 220.127.116.11 # use the single ip address
IP sets can be used to define groups of networks and hosts. You can refer them with '+name' in firewall rules 'source' and 'dest' properties.
The following example allows HTTP traffic from the 'management' IP set.
IN HTTP(ACCEPT) -source +management
Standard IP set 'management'
Those hosts are allowed to do normal management tasks (PVE GUI, VNC, SPICE, SSH). The local cluster network is automatically added to this IP set (alias 'cluster_network')
Standard IP set 'blacklist'
Traffic from those hosts is dropped.
Standard IP set 'ipfilter'
This ipset is used to prevent ip spoofing
[IPSET ipfilter-net0] # only allow specified IPs on net0 192.168.2.10
openvz veth interface
[IPSET ipfilter-eth0] # only allow specified IPs on veth eth0 192.168.2.10
Services and Commands
The firewall runs two service daemons on each node:
- pvefw-logger: NFLOG daemon (ulogd replacement).
- pve-firewall: updates iptables rules
There is also a CLI command named 'pve-firewall', which can be used to start and stop the firewall service:
# pve-firewall start # pve-firewall stop
To get the status use:
# pve-firewall status
Above command reads an compiles all firewall rules, so you will see warnings if your firewall configuration contains any errors.
If you want to see the generated iptables rules you can use:
Tips and Tricks
Howto allow FTP
FTP is an old style protocol which uses port 21 and several other dynamic ports. So you need a rule to accept port 21. In addition, you need to load the 'ip_conntrack_ftp' module. So please run:
and add ip_conntrack_ftp to /etc/modules (so that it works after a reboot) .
Suricata IPS integration
If you want to use suricate IPS (intrusion prevention system), it's possible.
Packets will be forwarded to IPS after firewall ACCEPT.
Rejected/Dropped firewall packets don't go to the IPS.
Install suricata on proxmox host:
- apt-get install suricata
Then, enable IPS for a specific vm
[OPTIONS] ips: 1 ips_queues: 0
ips_queues will bind a specific cpu queues for this vm.
Available queues are defined in