Difference between revisions of "User Management"

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authentication realms described below.
 
authentication realms described below.
 
Therefore a user is internally often identified by its name and
 
Therefore a user is internally often identified by its name and
realm in the form <userid>@<realm>.
+
realm in the form &lt;userid&gt;@&lt;realm&gt;.
 
Each user entry in this file contains the following information:
 
Each user entry in this file contains the following information:
 
First name
 
First name
Line 23: Line 23:
 
A comment or note about this user
 
A comment or note about this user
 
Whether this user is enabled or disabled
 
Whether this user is enabled or disabled
Optional two factor authentication keys
+
Optional two-factor authentication keys
 
System administrator
 
System administrator
The system’s root user can always log in via the Linux PAM realm and is an
+
The system&#8217;s root user can always log in via the Linux PAM realm and is an
 
unconfined administrator. This user cannot be deleted, but attributes can
 
unconfined administrator. This user cannot be deleted, but attributes can
 
still be changed and system mails will be sent to the email address
 
still be changed and system mails will be sent to the email address
Line 34: Line 34:
 
to groups instead of using individual users. That way you will get a
 
to groups instead of using individual users. That way you will get a
 
much shorter access control list which is easier to handle.
 
much shorter access control list which is easier to handle.
 +
API Tokens
 +
API tokens allow stateless access to most parts of the REST API by another
 +
system, software or API client. Tokens can be generated for individual users
 +
and can be given separate permissions and expiration dates to limit the scope
 +
and duration of the access. Should the API token get compromised it can be
 +
revoked without disabling the user itself.
 +
API tokens come in two basic types:
 +
separated privileges: the token needs to be given explicit access with ACLs,
 +
  its effective permissions are calculated by intersecting user and token
 +
  permissions.
 +
full privileges: the token permissions are identical to that of the
 +
  associated user.
 +
The token value is only displayed/returned once when the token is
 +
generated. It cannot be retrieved again over the API at a later time!
 +
To use an API token, set the HTTP header Authorization to the displayed value
 +
of the form PVEAPIToken=USER@REALM!TOKENID=UUID when making API requests, or
 +
refer to your API client documentation.
 
Authentication Realms
 
Authentication Realms
 
As Proxmox VE users are just counterparts for users existing on some external
 
As Proxmox VE users are just counterparts for users existing on some external
Line 39: Line 56:
 
The following realms (authentication methods) are available:
 
The following realms (authentication methods) are available:
 
Linux PAM standard authentication
 
Linux PAM standard authentication
In this case a system user has to exist (eg. created via the adduser
+
In this case a system user has to exist (e.g. created via the adduser
 
command) on all nodes the user is allowed to login, and the user
 
command) on all nodes the user is allowed to login, and the user
 
authenticates with their usual system password.
 
authenticates with their usual system password.
Line 49: Line 66:
 
This is a unix like password store (/etc/pve/priv/shadow.cfg).
 
This is a unix like password store (/etc/pve/priv/shadow.cfg).
 
Password are encrypted using the SHA-256 hash method.
 
Password are encrypted using the SHA-256 hash method.
This is the most convenient method for for small (or even medium)
+
This is the most convenient method for small (or even medium)
 
installations where users do not need access to anything outside of
 
installations where users do not need access to anything outside of
 
Proxmox VE. In this case users are fully managed by Proxmox VE and are able to
 
Proxmox VE. In this case users are fully managed by Proxmox VE and are able to
 
change their own passwords via the GUI.
 
change their own passwords via the GUI.
 
LDAP
 
LDAP
It is possible to authenticate users via an LDAP server (eq.
+
It is possible to authenticate users via an LDAP server (e.g.
 
openldap). The server and an optional fallback server can be
 
openldap). The server and an optional fallback server can be
 
configured and the connection can be encrypted via SSL.
 
configured and the connection can be encrypted via SSL.
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able to query and authenticate users, a bind domain name can be
 
able to query and authenticate users, a bind domain name can be
 
configured via the bind_dn property in /etc/pve/domains.cfg. Its
 
configured via the bind_dn property in /etc/pve/domains.cfg. Its
password then has to be stored in /etc/pve/priv/ldap/<realmname>.pw
+
password then has to be stored in /etc/pve/priv/ldap/&lt;realmname&gt;.pw
(eg. /etc/pve/priv/ldap/my-ldap.pw). This file should contain a
+
(e.g. /etc/pve/priv/ldap/my-ldap.pw). This file should contain a
 
single line containing the raw password.
 
single line containing the raw password.
 
Microsoft Active Directory
 
Microsoft Active Directory
Line 84: Line 101:
 
ldap an optional fallback server, optional port, and SSL
 
ldap an optional fallback server, optional port, and SSL
 
encryption can be configured.
 
encryption can be configured.
Two factor authentication
+
Syncing LDAP-based realms
Each realm can optionally be secured additionally by two factor
+
It is possible to sync users and groups for LDAP based realms. You can use the
authentication. This can be done by selecting one of the available methods
+
CLI command
via the TFA dropdown box when adding or editing an Authentication Realm.
+
  pveum realm sync &lt;realm&gt;
When a realm has TFA enabled it becomes a requirement and only users with
+
or in the Authentication panel of the GUI. Users and groups are synced to the
configured TFA will be able to login.
+
cluster-wide user configuration file /etc/pve/user.cfg.
 +
Requirements and limitations
 +
The bind_dn is used to query the users and groups. This account needs access
 +
to all desired entries.
 +
The fields which represent the names of the users and groups can be configured
 +
via the user_attr and group_name_attr respectively. Only entries which
 +
adhere to the usual character limitations of the user.cfg are synced.
 +
Groups are synced with -$realm attached to the name, to avoid naming
 +
conflicts. Please make sure that a sync does not overwrite manually created
 +
groups.
 +
Options
 +
The main options for syncing are:
 +
dry-run: No data is written to the config. This is useful if you want to
 +
  see which users and groups would get synced to the user.cfg. This is set
 +
  when you click Preview in the GUI.
 +
enable-new: If set, the newly synced users are enabled and can login.
 +
  The default is true.
 +
full: If set, the sync uses the LDAP Directory as a source of truth,
 +
  overwriting information set manually in the user.cfg and deletes users
 +
  and groups which are not present in the LDAP directory. If not set,
 +
  only new data is written to the config, and no stale users are deleted.
 +
purge: If set, sync removes all corresponding ACLs when removing users
 +
  and groups. This is only useful with the option full.
 +
scope: The scope of what to sync. It can be either users, groups or
 +
  both.
 +
These options are either set as parameters or as defaults, via the
 +
realm option sync-defaults-options.
 +
Two-factor authentication
 +
There are two ways to use two-factor authentication:
 +
It can be required by the authentication realm, either via TOTP
 +
(Time-based One-Time Password) or YubiKey OTP. In this case a newly
 +
created user needs their keys added immediately as there is no way to
 +
log in without the second factor. In the case of TOTP, users can
 +
also change the TOTP later on, provided they can log in first.
 +
Alternatively, users can choose to opt in to two-factor authentication
 +
via TOTP later on, even if the realm does not enforce it. As another
 +
option, if the server has an AppId configured, a user can opt into
 +
U2F authentication, provided the realm does not enforce any other
 +
second factor.
 +
Realm enforced two-factor authentication
 +
This can be done by selecting one of the available methods via the
 +
TFA dropdown box when adding or editing an Authentication Realm.
 +
When a realm has TFA enabled it becomes a requirement and only users
 +
with configured TFA will be able to login.
 
Currently there are two methods available:
 
Currently there are two methods available:
Time based OATH (TOTP)
+
Time-based OATH (TOTP)
This uses the standard HMAC-SHA1 algorithm where the current time is hashed
+
This uses the standard HMAC-SHA1 algorithm
with the user’s configured key. The time step and password length
+
where the current time is hashed with the user&#8217;s configured key. The
parameters are configured.
+
time step and password length parameters are configured.
A user can have multiple keys configured (separated by spaces), and the
+
A user can have multiple keys configured (separated by spaces), and the keys
keys can be specified in Base32 (RFC3548) or hexadecimal notation.
+
can be specified in Base32 (RFC3548) or hexadecimal notation.
Proxmox VE provides a key generation tool (oathkeygen) which prints out a
+
Proxmox VE provides a key generation tool (oathkeygen) which prints out a random
random key in Base32 notation which can be used directly with various OTP
+
key in Base32 notation which can be used directly with various OTP tools, such
tools, such as the oathtool command line tool, the Google authenticator
+
as the oathtool command line tool, or on Android Google Authenticator,
or FreeOTP Android apps.
+
FreeOTP, andOTP or similar applications.
 
YubiKey OTP
 
YubiKey OTP
 
For authenticating via a YubiKey a Yubico API ID, API KEY and validation
 
For authenticating via a YubiKey a Yubico API ID, API KEY and validation
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order to get the key ID from a YubiKey, you can trigger the YubiKey once
 
order to get the key ID from a YubiKey, you can trigger the YubiKey once
 
after connecting it to USB and copy the first 12 characters of the typed
 
after connecting it to USB and copy the first 12 characters of the typed
password into the user’s Key IDs field.
+
password into the user&#8217;s Key IDs field.
Please refer to the
+
+
YubiKey OTP documentation for how to use the
+
Please refer to the YubiKey OTP
 +
documentation for how to use the
 
YubiCloud or
 
YubiCloud or
host your own verification server.
+
host
 +
your own verification server.
 +
User configured TOTP authentication
 +
Users can choose to enable TOTP as a second factor on login via the TFA
 +
button in the user list (unless the realm enforces YubiKey OTP).
 +
After opening the TFA window, the user is presented with a dialog to setup
 +
TOTP authentication. The Secret field contains the key, which can simply be
 +
generated randomly via the Randomize button. An optional Issuer Name can be
 +
added to provide information to the TOTP app what the key belongs to.
 +
Most TOTP apps will show the issuer name together with the corresponding
 +
OTP values. The user name is also included in the QR code for the TOTP app.
 +
After generating a key, a QR code will be displayed which can be used with most
 +
OTP apps such as FreeOTP. Now the user needs to verify both the current user
 +
password (unless logged in as root), as well as the ability to correctly use
 +
the TOTP key by typing the current OTP value into the Verification Code
 +
field before pressing the Apply button.
 +
Server side U2F configuration
 +
To allow users to use U2F authentication, the server needs to have a valid
 +
domain with a valid https certificate. Initially an AppId
 +
[AppId https://developers.yubico.com/U2F/App_ID.html]
 +
needs to be configured.
 +
Changing the AppId will render all existing U2F registrations
 +
unusable!
 +
This is done via /etc/pve/datacenter.cfg, for instance:
 +
u2f: appid=https://mypve.example.com:8006
 +
For a single node, the AppId can simply be the web UI address exactly as it
 +
is used in the browser, including the https:// and the port as shown above.
 +
Please note that some browsers may be more strict than others when matching
 +
AppIds.
 +
When using multiple nodes, it is best to have a separate https server
 +
providing an appid.json
 +
[Multi-facet apps: https://developers.yubico.com/U2F/App_ID.html]
 +
file, as it seems to be compatible with most
 +
browsers. If all nodes use subdomains of the same top level domain, it may be
 +
enough to use the TLD as AppId, but note that some browsers may not accept
 +
this.
 +
A bad AppId will usually produce an error, but we have encountered
 +
situation where this does not happen, particularly when using a top level domain
 +
AppId for a node accessed via a subdomain in Chromium. For this reason it is
 +
recommended to test the configuration with multiple browsers, as changing the
 +
AppId later will render existing U2F registrations unusable.
 +
Activating U2F as a user
 +
To enable U2F authentication, open the TFA window&#8217;s U2F tab, type in the
 +
current password (unless logged in as root), and press the Register button.
 +
If the server is setup correctly and the browser accepted the server&#8217;s provided
 +
AppId, a message will appear prompting the user to press the button on the
 +
U2F device (if it is a YubiKey the button light should be toggling off and
 +
on steadily around twice per second).
 +
Firefox users may need to enable security.webauth.u2f via about:config
 +
before they can use a U2F token.
 
Permission Management
 
Permission Management
 
In order for a user to perform an action (such as listing, modifying or
 
In order for a user to perform an action (such as listing, modifying or
Line 116: Line 226:
 
appropriate permissions.
 
appropriate permissions.
 
Proxmox VE uses a role and path based permission management system. An entry in
 
Proxmox VE uses a role and path based permission management system. An entry in
the permissions table allows a user or group to take on a specific role
+
the permissions table allows a user, group or token to take on a specific role
 
when accessing an object or path. This means an such an access rule can
 
when accessing an object or path. This means an such an access rule can
be represented as a triple of (path, user, role) or (path, group,
+
be represented as a triple of (path, user, role), (path, group,
role), with the role containing a set of allowed actions, and the path
+
role) or (path, token, role), with the role containing a set of allowed
representing the target of these actions.
+
actions, and the path representing the target of these actions.
 
Roles
 
Roles
 
A role is simply a list of privileges. Proxmox VE comes with a number
 
A role is simply a list of privileges. Proxmox VE comes with a number
Line 137: Line 247:
 
PVEVMUser: view, backup, config CDROM, VM console, VM power management
 
PVEVMUser: view, backup, config CDROM, VM console, VM power management
 
You can see the whole set of predefined roles on the GUI.
 
You can see the whole set of predefined roles on the GUI.
Adding new roles can currently only be done from the command line, like
+
Adding new roles can be done via both GUI and the command line.
 +
For the GUI just navigate to Permissions &#8594; User Tab from Datacenter and
 +
click on the Create button, there you can set a name and select all desired
 +
roles from the Privileges dropdown box.
 +
To add a role through the command line you can use the pveum CLI tool, like
 
this:
 
this:
 
pveum roleadd PVE_Power-only -privs "VM.PowerMgmt VM.Console"
 
pveum roleadd PVE_Power-only -privs "VM.PowerMgmt VM.Console"
Line 149: Line 263:
 
Node / System related privileges
 
Node / System related privileges
 
Permissions.Modify: modify access permissions
 
Permissions.Modify: modify access permissions
Sys.PowerMgmt: Node power management (start, stop, reset, shutdown, )
+
Sys.PowerMgmt: Node power management (start, stop, reset, shutdown, &#8230;)
 
Sys.Console: console access to Node
 
Sys.Console: console access to Node
 
Sys.Syslog: view Syslog
 
Sys.Syslog: view Syslog
Sys.Audit: view node status/config
+
Sys.Audit: view node status/config, Corosync cluster config and HA config
 
Sys.Modify: create/remove/modify node network parameters
 
Sys.Modify: create/remove/modify node network parameters
 
Group.Allocate: create/remove/modify groups
 
Group.Allocate: create/remove/modify groups
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VM.Allocate: create/remove new VM to server inventory
 
VM.Allocate: create/remove new VM to server inventory
 
VM.Migrate: migrate VM to alternate server on cluster
 
VM.Migrate: migrate VM to alternate server on cluster
VM.PowerMgmt: power management (start, stop, reset, shutdown, )
+
VM.PowerMgmt: power management (start, stop, reset, shutdown, &#8230;)
 
VM.Console: console access to VM
 
VM.Console: console access to VM
 
VM.Monitor: access to VM monitor (kvm)
 
VM.Monitor: access to VM monitor (kvm)
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templated path, the path may contain references to parameters of the API
 
templated path, the path may contain references to parameters of the API
 
call. These references are specified in curly braces. Some parameters are
 
call. These references are specified in curly braces. Some parameters are
implicitly taken from the API call’s URI. For instance the permission path
+
implicitly taken from the API call&#8217;s URI. For instance the permission path
 
/nodes/{node} when calling /nodes/mynode/status requires permissions on
 
/nodes/{node} when calling /nodes/mynode/status requires permissions on
 
/nodes/mynode, while the path {path} in a PUT request to /access/acl
 
/nodes/mynode, while the path {path} in a PUT request to /access/acl
refers to the method’s path parameter.
+
refers to the method&#8217;s path parameter.
 
Some examples are:
 
Some examples are:
 
/nodes/{node}: Access to Proxmox VE server machines
 
/nodes/{node}: Access to Proxmox VE server machines
Line 209: Line 323:
 
Permissions for groups apply when the user is member of that group.
 
Permissions for groups apply when the user is member of that group.
 
Permissions replace the ones inherited from an upper level.
 
Permissions replace the ones inherited from an upper level.
 +
Additionally, privilege separated tokens can never have a permission on any
 +
given path that their associated user does not have.
 
Pools
 
Pools
 
Pools can be used to group a set of virtual machines and data
 
Pools can be used to group a set of virtual machines and data
Line 219: Line 335:
 
The permissions are specified as a list which can be interpreted as a
 
The permissions are specified as a list which can be interpreted as a
 
tree of logic and access-check functions:
 
tree of logic and access-check functions:
["and", <subtests>...] and ["or", <subtests>...]
+
["and", &lt;subtests&gt;...] and ["or", &lt;subtests&gt;...]
 
Each(and) or any(or) further element in the current list has to be true.
 
Each(and) or any(or) further element in the current list has to be true.
["perm", <path>, [ <privileges>... ], <options>...]
+
["perm", &lt;path&gt;, [ &lt;privileges&gt;... ], &lt;options&gt;...]
 
The path is a templated parameter (see
 
The path is a templated parameter (see
Objects and Paths). All (or , if the any
+
Objects and Paths). All (or, if the any
 
option is used, any) of the listed
 
option is used, any) of the listed
 
privileges must be allowed on the specified path. If a require-param
 
privileges must be allowed on the specified path. If a require-param
 
option is specified, then its specified parameter is required even if the
 
option is specified, then its specified parameter is required even if the
API call’s schema otherwise lists it as being optional.
+
API call&#8217;s schema otherwise lists it as being optional.
["userid-group", [ <privileges>... ], <options>...]
+
["userid-group", [ &lt;privileges&gt;... ], &lt;options&gt;...]
The callermust have any of the listed privileges on /access/groups. In
+
The caller must have any of the listed privileges on /access/groups. In
 
addition there are two possible checks depending on whether the
 
addition there are two possible checks depending on whether the
 
groups_param option is set:
 
groups_param option is set:
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groups_param is not set: The user passed via the userid parameter
 
groups_param is not set: The user passed via the userid parameter
 
must exist and be part of a group on which the caller has any of the listed
 
must exist and be part of a group on which the caller has any of the listed
privileges (via the /access/groups/<group> path).
+
privileges (via the /access/groups/&lt;group&gt; path).
 
["userid-param", "self"]
 
["userid-param", "self"]
The value provided for the API call’s userid parameter must refer to the
+
The value provided for the API call&#8217;s userid parameter must refer to the
 
user performing the action. (Usually in conjunction with or, to allow
 
user performing the action. (Usually in conjunction with or, to allow
users to perform an action on themselves even if they don’t have elevated
+
users to perform an action on themselves even if they don&#8217;t have elevated
 
privileges.)
 
privileges.)
 
["userid-param", "Realm.AllocateUser"]
 
["userid-param", "Realm.AllocateUser"]
The user needs Realm.AllocateUser access to /access/realm/<realm>, with
+
The user needs Realm.AllocateUser access to /access/realm/&lt;realm&gt;, with
<realm> refering to the realm of the user passed via the userid
+
&lt;realm&gt; referring to the realm of the user passed via the userid
 
parameter. Note that the user does not need to exist in order to be
 
parameter. Note that the user does not need to exist in order to be
 
associated with a realm, since user IDs are passed in the form of
 
associated with a realm, since user IDs are passed in the form of
<username>@<realm>.
+
&lt;username&gt;@&lt;realm&gt;.
["perm-modify", <path>]
+
["perm-modify", &lt;path&gt;]
 
The path is a templated parameter (see
 
The path is a templated parameter (see
 
Objects and Paths). The user needs either the
 
Objects and Paths). The user needs either the
Line 260: Line 376:
 
Command Line Tool
 
Command Line Tool
 
Most users will simply use the GUI to manage users. But there is also
 
Most users will simply use the GUI to manage users. But there is also
a full featured command line tool called pveum (short for “Proxmox
+
a fully featured command line tool called pveum (short for &#8220;Proxmox
VE User Manager”). Please note that all Proxmox VE command
+
VE User Manager&#8221;). Please note that all Proxmox VE command
 
line tools are wrappers around the API, so you can also access those
 
line tools are wrappers around the API, so you can also access those
function through the REST API.
+
functions through the REST API.
 
Here are some simple usage examples. To show help type:
 
Here are some simple usage examples. To show help type:
 
pveum
 
pveum
Line 296: Line 412:
 
pveum aclmod /vms -user joe@pve -role PVEAuditor
 
pveum aclmod /vms -user joe@pve -role PVEAuditor
 
Delegate User Management
 
Delegate User Management
If you want to delegate user managenent to user joe@pve you can do
+
If you want to delegate user management to user joe@pve you can do
 
that with:
 
that with:
 
pveum aclmod /access -user joe@pve -role PVEUserAdmin
 
pveum aclmod /access -user joe@pve -role PVEUserAdmin
Line 308: Line 424:
 
The user is able to add other users, but only if they are
 
The user is able to add other users, but only if they are
 
members of group customers and within realm pve.
 
members of group customers and within realm pve.
 +
Limited API token for monitoring
 +
Given a user joe@pve with the PVEVMAdmin role on all VMs:
 +
pveum aclmod /vms -user joe@pve -role PVEVMAdmin
 +
Add a new API token with separate privileges, which is only allowed to view VM
 +
information (e.g., for monitoring purposes):
 +
pveum user token add joe@pve monitoring -privsep 1
 +
pveum aclmod /vms -token 'joe@pve!monitoring' -role PVEAuditor
 +
Verify the permissions of the user and token:
 +
pveum user permissions joe@pve
 +
pveum user token permissions joe@pve monitoring
 
Pools
 
Pools
 
An enterprise is usually structured into several smaller departments,
 
An enterprise is usually structured into several smaller departments,
Line 322: Line 448:
 
pveum useradd developer1@pve -group developers -password
 
pveum useradd developer1@pve -group developers -password
 
The -password parameter will prompt you for a password
 
The -password parameter will prompt you for a password
I assume we already created a pool called “dev-pool” on the GUI. So we can now assign permission to that pool:
+
I assume we already created a pool called &#8220;dev-pool&#8221; on the GUI. So we can now assign permission to that pool:
 
pveum aclmod /pool/dev-pool/ -group developers -role PVEAdmin
 
pveum aclmod /pool/dev-pool/ -group developers -role PVEAdmin
 
Our software developers can now administrate the resources assigned to
 
Our software developers can now administrate the resources assigned to

Latest revision as of 10:51, 12 May 2020

Proxmox VE supports multiple authentication sources, e.g. Linux PAM, an integrated Proxmox VE authentication server, LDAP, Microsoft Active Directory.

By using the role based user- and permission management for all objects (VMs, storages, nodes, etc.) granular access can be defined.

Users

Proxmox VE stores user attributes in /etc/pve/user.cfg. Passwords are not stored here, users are instead associated with authentication realms described below. Therefore a user is internally often identified by its name and realm in the form <userid>@<realm>.

Each user entry in this file contains the following information:

  • First name

  • Last name

  • E-mail address

  • Group memberships

  • An optional Expiration date

  • A comment or note about this user

  • Whether this user is enabled or disabled

  • Optional two-factor authentication keys

System administrator

The system’s root user can always log in via the Linux PAM realm and is an unconfined administrator. This user cannot be deleted, but attributes can still be changed and system mails will be sent to the email address assigned to this user.

Groups

Each user can be member of several groups. Groups are the preferred way to organize access permissions. You should always grant permission to groups instead of using individual users. That way you will get a much shorter access control list which is easier to handle.

API Tokens

API tokens allow stateless access to most parts of the REST API by another system, software or API client. Tokens can be generated for individual users and can be given separate permissions and expiration dates to limit the scope and duration of the access. Should the API token get compromised it can be revoked without disabling the user itself.

API tokens come in two basic types:

  • separated privileges: the token needs to be given explicit access with ACLs, its effective permissions are calculated by intersecting user and token permissions.

  • full privileges: the token permissions are identical to that of the associated user.

Caution The token value is only displayed/returned once when the token is generated. It cannot be retrieved again over the API at a later time!

To use an API token, set the HTTP header Authorization to the displayed value of the form PVEAPIToken=USER@REALM!TOKENID=UUID when making API requests, or refer to your API client documentation.

Authentication Realms

As Proxmox VE users are just counterparts for users existing on some external realm, the realms have to be configured in /etc/pve/domains.cfg. The following realms (authentication methods) are available:

Linux PAM standard authentication

In this case a system user has to exist (e.g. created via the adduser command) on all nodes the user is allowed to login, and the user authenticates with their usual system password.

useradd heinz
passwd heinz
groupadd watchman
usermod -a -G watchman heinz
Proxmox VE authentication server

This is a unix like password store (/etc/pve/priv/shadow.cfg). Password are encrypted using the SHA-256 hash method. This is the most convenient method for small (or even medium) installations where users do not need access to anything outside of Proxmox VE. In this case users are fully managed by Proxmox VE and are able to change their own passwords via the GUI.

LDAP

It is possible to authenticate users via an LDAP server (e.g. openldap). The server and an optional fallback server can be configured and the connection can be encrypted via SSL.

Users are searched under a Base Domain Name (base_dn), with the user name found in the attribute specified in the User Attribute Name (user_attr) field.

For instance, if a user is represented via the following ldif dataset:

# user1 of People at ldap-test.com
dn: uid=user1,ou=People,dc=ldap-test,dc=com
objectClass: top
objectClass: person
objectClass: organizationalPerson
objectClass: inetOrgPerson
uid: user1
cn: Test User 1
sn: Testers
description: This is the first test user.

The Base Domain Name would be ou=People,dc=ldap-test,dc=com and the user attribute would be uid.

If Proxmox VE needs to authenticate (bind) to the ldap server before being able to query and authenticate users, a bind domain name can be configured via the bind_dn property in /etc/pve/domains.cfg. Its password then has to be stored in /etc/pve/priv/ldap/<realmname>.pw (e.g. /etc/pve/priv/ldap/my-ldap.pw). This file should contain a single line containing the raw password.

Microsoft Active Directory

A server and authentication domain need to be specified. Like with ldap an optional fallback server, optional port, and SSL encryption can be configured.

Syncing LDAP-based realms

screenshot/gui-datacenter-realm-add-ldap.png

It is possible to sync users and groups for LDAP based realms. You can use the CLI command

  pveum realm sync <realm>

or in the Authentication panel of the GUI. Users and groups are synced to the cluster-wide user configuration file /etc/pve/user.cfg.

Requirements and limitations

The bind_dn is used to query the users and groups. This account needs access to all desired entries.

The fields which represent the names of the users and groups can be configured via the user_attr and group_name_attr respectively. Only entries which adhere to the usual character limitations of the user.cfg are synced.

Groups are synced with -$realm attached to the name, to avoid naming conflicts. Please make sure that a sync does not overwrite manually created groups.

Options

screenshot/gui-datacenter-realm-add-ldap-sync-options.png

The main options for syncing are:

  • dry-run: No data is written to the config. This is useful if you want to see which users and groups would get synced to the user.cfg. This is set when you click Preview in the GUI.

  • enable-new: If set, the newly synced users are enabled and can login. The default is true.

  • full: If set, the sync uses the LDAP Directory as a source of truth, overwriting information set manually in the user.cfg and deletes users and groups which are not present in the LDAP directory. If not set, only new data is written to the config, and no stale users are deleted.

  • purge: If set, sync removes all corresponding ACLs when removing users and groups. This is only useful with the option full.

  • scope: The scope of what to sync. It can be either users, groups or both.

These options are either set as parameters or as defaults, via the realm option sync-defaults-options.

Two-factor authentication

There are two ways to use two-factor authentication:

It can be required by the authentication realm, either via TOTP (Time-based One-Time Password) or YubiKey OTP. In this case a newly created user needs their keys added immediately as there is no way to log in without the second factor. In the case of TOTP, users can also change the TOTP later on, provided they can log in first.

Alternatively, users can choose to opt in to two-factor authentication via TOTP later on, even if the realm does not enforce it. As another option, if the server has an AppId configured, a user can opt into U2F authentication, provided the realm does not enforce any other second factor.

Realm enforced two-factor authentication

This can be done by selecting one of the available methods via the TFA dropdown box when adding or editing an Authentication Realm. When a realm has TFA enabled it becomes a requirement and only users with configured TFA will be able to login.

Currently there are two methods available:

Time-based OATH (TOTP)

This uses the standard HMAC-SHA1 algorithm where the current time is hashed with the user’s configured key. The time step and password length parameters are configured.

A user can have multiple keys configured (separated by spaces), and the keys can be specified in Base32 (RFC3548) or hexadecimal notation.

Proxmox VE provides a key generation tool (oathkeygen) which prints out a random key in Base32 notation which can be used directly with various OTP tools, such as the oathtool command line tool, or on Android Google Authenticator, FreeOTP, andOTP or similar applications.

YubiKey OTP

For authenticating via a YubiKey a Yubico API ID, API KEY and validation server URL must be configured, and users must have a YubiKey available. In order to get the key ID from a YubiKey, you can trigger the YubiKey once after connecting it to USB and copy the first 12 characters of the typed password into the user’s Key IDs field.

+ Please refer to the YubiKey OTP documentation for how to use the YubiCloud or host your own verification server.

User configured TOTP authentication

Users can choose to enable TOTP as a second factor on login via the TFA button in the user list (unless the realm enforces YubiKey OTP).

screenshot/gui-datacenter-users-tfa.png

After opening the TFA window, the user is presented with a dialog to setup TOTP authentication. The Secret field contains the key, which can simply be generated randomly via the Randomize button. An optional Issuer Name can be added to provide information to the TOTP app what the key belongs to. Most TOTP apps will show the issuer name together with the corresponding OTP values. The user name is also included in the QR code for the TOTP app.

After generating a key, a QR code will be displayed which can be used with most OTP apps such as FreeOTP. Now the user needs to verify both the current user password (unless logged in as root), as well as the ability to correctly use the TOTP key by typing the current OTP value into the Verification Code field before pressing the Apply button.

Server side U2F configuration

To allow users to use U2F authentication, the server needs to have a valid domain with a valid https certificate. Initially an AppId
[AppId https://developers.yubico.com/U2F/App_ID.html]
needs to be configured.

Note Changing the AppId will render all existing U2F registrations unusable!

This is done via /etc/pve/datacenter.cfg, for instance:

u2f: appid=https://mypve.example.com:8006

For a single node, the AppId can simply be the web UI address exactly as it is used in the browser, including the https:// and the port as shown above. Please note that some browsers may be more strict than others when matching AppIds.

When using multiple nodes, it is best to have a separate https server providing an appid.json
[Multi-facet apps: https://developers.yubico.com/U2F/App_ID.html]
file, as it seems to be compatible with most browsers. If all nodes use subdomains of the same top level domain, it may be enough to use the TLD as AppId, but note that some browsers may not accept this.

Note A bad AppId will usually produce an error, but we have encountered situation where this does not happen, particularly when using a top level domain AppId for a node accessed via a subdomain in Chromium. For this reason it is recommended to test the configuration with multiple browsers, as changing the AppId later will render existing U2F registrations unusable.

Activating U2F as a user

To enable U2F authentication, open the TFA window’s U2F tab, type in the current password (unless logged in as root), and press the Register button. If the server is setup correctly and the browser accepted the server’s provided AppId, a message will appear prompting the user to press the button on the U2F device (if it is a YubiKey the button light should be toggling off and on steadily around twice per second).

Firefox users may need to enable security.webauth.u2f via about:config before they can use a U2F token.

Permission Management

In order for a user to perform an action (such as listing, modifying or deleting a parts of a VM configuration), the user needs to have the appropriate permissions.

Proxmox VE uses a role and path based permission management system. An entry in the permissions table allows a user, group or token to take on a specific role when accessing an object or path. This means an such an access rule can be represented as a triple of (path, user, role), (path, group, role) or (path, token, role), with the role containing a set of allowed actions, and the path representing the target of these actions.

Roles

A role is simply a list of privileges. Proxmox VE comes with a number of predefined roles which satisfies most needs.

  • Administrator: has all privileges

  • NoAccess: has no privileges (used to forbid access)

  • PVEAdmin: can do most things, but miss rights to modify system settings (Sys.PowerMgmt, Sys.Modify, Realm.Allocate).

  • PVEAuditor: read only access

  • PVEDatastoreAdmin: create and allocate backup space and templates

  • PVEDatastoreUser: allocate backup space and view storage

  • PVEPoolAdmin: allocate pools

  • PVESysAdmin: User ACLs, audit, system console and system logs

  • PVETemplateUser: view and clone templates

  • PVEUserAdmin: user administration

  • PVEVMAdmin: fully administer VMs

  • PVEVMUser: view, backup, config CDROM, VM console, VM power management

You can see the whole set of predefined roles on the GUI.

Adding new roles can be done via both GUI and the command line.

screenshot/gui-datacenter-role-add.png

For the GUI just navigate to Permissions → User Tab from Datacenter and click on the Create button, there you can set a name and select all desired roles from the Privileges dropdown box.

To add a role through the command line you can use the pveum CLI tool, like this:

pveum roleadd PVE_Power-only -privs "VM.PowerMgmt VM.Console"
pveum roleadd Sys_Power-only -privs "Sys.PowerMgmt Sys.Console"

Privileges

A privilege is the right to perform a specific action. To simplify management, lists of privileges are grouped into roles, which can then be used in the permission table. Note that privileges cannot directly be assigned to users and paths without being part of a role.

We currently use the following privileges:

Node / System related privileges
  • Permissions.Modify: modify access permissions

  • Sys.PowerMgmt: Node power management (start, stop, reset, shutdown, …)

  • Sys.Console: console access to Node

  • Sys.Syslog: view Syslog

  • Sys.Audit: view node status/config, Corosync cluster config and HA config

  • Sys.Modify: create/remove/modify node network parameters

  • Group.Allocate: create/remove/modify groups

  • Pool.Allocate: create/remove/modify a pool

  • Realm.Allocate: create/remove/modify authentication realms

  • Realm.AllocateUser: assign user to a realm

  • User.Modify: create/remove/modify user access and details.

Virtual machine related privileges
  • VM.Allocate: create/remove new VM to server inventory

  • VM.Migrate: migrate VM to alternate server on cluster

  • VM.PowerMgmt: power management (start, stop, reset, shutdown, …)

  • VM.Console: console access to VM

  • VM.Monitor: access to VM monitor (kvm)

  • VM.Backup: backup/restore VMs

  • VM.Audit: view VM config

  • VM.Clone: clone/copy a VM

  • VM.Config.Disk: add/modify/delete Disks

  • VM.Config.CDROM: eject/change CDROM

  • VM.Config.CPU: modify CPU settings

  • VM.Config.Memory: modify Memory settings

  • VM.Config.Network: add/modify/delete Network devices

  • VM.Config.HWType: modify emulated HW type

  • VM.Config.Options: modify any other VM configuration

  • VM.Snapshot: create/remove VM snapshots

Storage related privileges
  • Datastore.Allocate: create/remove/modify a data store, delete volumes

  • Datastore.AllocateSpace: allocate space on a datastore

  • Datastore.AllocateTemplate: allocate/upload templates and iso images

  • Datastore.Audit: view/browse a datastore

Objects and Paths

Access permissions are assigned to objects, such as a virtual machines, storages or pools of resources. We use file system like paths to address these objects. These paths form a natural tree, and permissions of higher levels (shorter path) can optionally be propagated down within this hierarchy.

Paths can be templated. When an API call requires permissions on a templated path, the path may contain references to parameters of the API call. These references are specified in curly braces. Some parameters are implicitly taken from the API call’s URI. For instance the permission path /nodes/{node} when calling /nodes/mynode/status requires permissions on /nodes/mynode, while the path {path} in a PUT request to /access/acl refers to the method’s path parameter.

Some examples are:

  • /nodes/{node}: Access to Proxmox VE server machines

  • /vms: Covers all VMs

  • /vms/{vmid}: Access to specific VMs

  • /storage/{storeid}: Access to a storages

  • /pool/{poolname}: Access to VMs part of a pool

  • /access/groups: Group administration

  • /access/realms/{realmid}: Administrative access to realms

Inheritance

As mentioned earlier, object paths form a file system like tree, and permissions can be inherited down that tree (the propagate flag is set by default). We use the following inheritance rules:

  • Permissions for individual users always replace group permissions.

  • Permissions for groups apply when the user is member of that group.

  • Permissions replace the ones inherited from an upper level.

Additionally, privilege separated tokens can never have a permission on any given path that their associated user does not have.

Pools

Pools can be used to group a set of virtual machines and data stores. You can then simply set permissions on pools (/pool/{poolid}), which are inherited to all pool members. This is a great way simplify access control.

What permission do I need?

The required API permissions are documented for each individual method, and can be found at http://pve.proxmox.com/pve-docs/api-viewer/

The permissions are specified as a list which can be interpreted as a tree of logic and access-check functions:

["and", <subtests>...] and ["or", <subtests>...]

Each(and) or any(or) further element in the current list has to be true.

["perm", <path>, [ <privileges>... ], <options>...]

The path is a templated parameter (see Objects and Paths). All (or, if the any option is used, any) of the listed privileges must be allowed on the specified path. If a require-param option is specified, then its specified parameter is required even if the API call’s schema otherwise lists it as being optional.

["userid-group", [ <privileges>... ], <options>...]

The caller must have any of the listed privileges on /access/groups. In addition there are two possible checks depending on whether the groups_param option is set:

  • groups_param is set: The API call has a non-optional groups parameter and the caller must have any of the listed privileges on all of the listed groups.

  • groups_param is not set: The user passed via the userid parameter must exist and be part of a group on which the caller has any of the listed privileges (via the /access/groups/<group> path).

["userid-param", "self"]

The value provided for the API call’s userid parameter must refer to the user performing the action. (Usually in conjunction with or, to allow users to perform an action on themselves even if they don’t have elevated privileges.)

["userid-param", "Realm.AllocateUser"]

The user needs Realm.AllocateUser access to /access/realm/<realm>, with <realm> referring to the realm of the user passed via the userid parameter. Note that the user does not need to exist in order to be associated with a realm, since user IDs are passed in the form of <username>@<realm>.

["perm-modify", <path>]

The path is a templated parameter (see Objects and Paths). The user needs either the Permissions.Modify privilege, or, depending on the path, the following privileges as a possible substitute:

  • /storage/...: additionally requires 'Datastore.Allocate`

  • /vms/...: additionally requires 'VM.Allocate`

  • /pool/...: additionally requires 'Pool.Allocate`

    If the path is empty, Permission.Modify on /access is required.

Command Line Tool

Most users will simply use the GUI to manage users. But there is also a fully featured command line tool called pveum (short for “Proxmox VE User Manager”). Please note that all Proxmox VE command line tools are wrappers around the API, so you can also access those functions through the REST API.

Here are some simple usage examples. To show help type:

pveum

or (to show detailed help about a specific command)

pveum help useradd

Create a new user:

pveum useradd testuser@pve -comment "Just a test"

Set or Change the password (not all realms support that):

pveum passwd testuser@pve

Disable a user:

pveum usermod testuser@pve -enable 0

Create a new group:

pveum groupadd testgroup

Create a new role:

pveum roleadd PVE_Power-only -privs "VM.PowerMgmt VM.Console"

Real World Examples

Administrator Group

One of the most wanted features was the ability to define a group of users with full administrator rights (without using the root account).

Define the group:

pveum groupadd admin -comment "System Administrators"

Then add the permission:

pveum aclmod / -group admin -role Administrator

You can finally add users to the new admin group:

pveum usermod testuser@pve -group admin

Auditors

You can give read only access to users by assigning the PVEAuditor role to users or groups.

Example1: Allow user joe@pve to see everything

pveum aclmod / -user joe@pve -role PVEAuditor

Example1: Allow user joe@pve to see all virtual machines

pveum aclmod /vms -user joe@pve -role PVEAuditor

Delegate User Management

If you want to delegate user management to user joe@pve you can do that with:

pveum aclmod /access -user joe@pve -role PVEUserAdmin

User joe@pve can now add and remove users, change passwords and other user attributes. This is a very powerful role, and you most likely want to limit that to selected realms and groups. The following example allows joe@pve to modify users within realm pve if they are members of group customers:

pveum aclmod /access/realm/pve -user joe@pve -role PVEUserAdmin
pveum aclmod /access/groups/customers -user joe@pve -role PVEUserAdmin
Note The user is able to add other users, but only if they are members of group customers and within realm pve.

Limited API token for monitoring

Given a user joe@pve with the PVEVMAdmin role on all VMs:

pveum aclmod /vms -user joe@pve -role PVEVMAdmin

Add a new API token with separate privileges, which is only allowed to view VM information (e.g., for monitoring purposes):

pveum user token add joe@pve monitoring -privsep 1
pveum aclmod /vms -token 'joe@pve!monitoring' -role PVEAuditor

Verify the permissions of the user and token:

pveum user permissions joe@pve
pveum user token permissions joe@pve monitoring

Pools

An enterprise is usually structured into several smaller departments, and it is common that you want to assign resources to them and delegate management tasks. A pool is simply a set of virtual machines and data stores. You can create pools on the GUI. After that you can add resources to the pool (VMs, Storage).

You can also assign permissions to the pool. Those permissions are inherited to all pool members.

Lets assume you have a software development department, so we first create a group

pveum groupadd developers -comment "Our software developers"

Now we create a new user which is a member of that group

pveum useradd developer1@pve -group developers -password
Note The -password parameter will prompt you for a password

I assume we already created a pool called “dev-pool” on the GUI. So we can now assign permission to that pool:

pveum aclmod /pool/dev-pool/ -group developers -role PVEAdmin

Our software developers can now administrate the resources assigned to that pool.