Difference between revisions of "Paravirtualized Block Drivers for Windows"

From Proxmox VE
Jump to navigation Jump to search
(→‎Download: make download section of this page and network one are the same)
 
(31 intermediate revisions by 7 users not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
=Introduction=
+
= Introduction =
In order to improve disk performance, special paravirtualized block drivers can be installed in Windows guests (also network device drivers exist, see [[Paravirtualized Network Drivers for Windows]]). In order to use them in your Windows guest VM, you have to obtain those drivers and then install them on the guest os.
+
In order to improve disk performance, special paravirtualized block drivers can be installed in Windows guests.
 +
You have to download and install those drivers in the VM, as Windows does not provides them by default.
  
KVM Guest Support Status can be found here: http://www.linux-kvm.org/page/Guest_Support_Status
+
{{note|Proxmox recommends using SCSI with ''VirtIO SCSI'' as ''SCSI Controller Type'' for VM disks, to have the most features and best performance.
 +
VirtIO block may get deprecated in the future.|reminder}}
  
==Download==
+
== Download ==
Download the latest drivers (ISO) from [http://www.linux-kvm.org/page/WindowsGuestDrivers/Download_Drivers KVM project wiki downloads] to your desktop and upload the ISO to your Proxmox VE server (just use the "upload file" button on the Proxmox VE web interface: "VM Manager/ISO Images"). Using the drivers prepared by the Fedora project are known to work:
 
*Stable - http://alt.fedoraproject.org/pub/alt/virtio-win/stable/
 
*Latest - http://alt.fedoraproject.org/pub/alt/virtio-win/latest/
 
  
==Installation==
+
You can download the latest stable Windows VirtIO drivers from: https://fedorapeople.org/groups/virt/virtio-win/direct-downloads/stable-virtio/virtio-win.iso
The target is to make Windows install virtio drivers for all of its disks. There could be more strategies to accomplish this task:
+
Older Windows Versions may sometimes need older VirtIO drivers. See [[Windows VirtIO Drivers]] for more info about the change log, guest OS compatibility and other useful VirtIO guest devices.
  
===Adding a temporary drive===
+
Upload the ISO through the Proxmox VE WebUI:
see (http://www.linux-kvm.com/content/redhat-54-windows-virtio-drivers-part-2-block-drivers)
+
Select a Storage which allows ISO images in the PVE WebUI and switch to ''Content'' tab where you can use the "upload" button on the menu bar.  
  
* tested guest OSs:
+
You may also copy the ISO manually onto a PVE configured storage.
** windows 2003 r2 32 bit guest
 
** windows 2000 server sp4
 
  
The base Windows OS in your guest VM knows nothing about virtio drivers, and for this reason you can't simply stop the VM, change the disk to virtio and reboot. You have to force Windows to install virtio drivers for a virtio disk (provided by PVE), how? Adding a temporary, small, virtio disk to the VM, then booting Windows and make it recognize a new disk, and ask you the drivers (which, at that moment, it doesn't know of).
+
= Installation =
  
* Prerequisite: the Base Windows OS should be already running (IDE drives, usually)
+
The goal to use VirtIO SCSI or Block (SCSI is recommended) to improve the performance and available features of (Windows) VMs.
* Shut down the VM and, from PVE:
+
The way we do this depends if we want to change an already installed and running Windows VM or if we want to set this up during a Windows installation.
** add a small virtio disk to the VM through PVE web interface (say, 1GB)
+
 
** add the ISO just downloaded as a CD device through PVE web interface
+
== Setup On Running Windows ==
** Make shure that the primary boot device is still the old (IDE) boot disk, not the new virtio disk, through PVE web interface.
+
 
* Boot the VM and log in as a local administrator
+
Here we add a temporary disk with the new wanted disk controller to the VM and install the respective drivers.
* Window should detect the new disk has a new unknown device and ask you for its drivers:
+
The Windows OS in your VM knows nothing about VirtIO drivers, so you can't simply stop the VM, change the disk to Vrtio-SCSI or VirtIO and reboot.
** Select No when the wizard asks you to search for the driver software
+
You have to force Windows to install VirtIO drivers during it runs. To do this we add a small temporary  SCSI-VirtIO or VirtIO disk to the VM and install its drivers explicitly.
** Select “install from a list of specific location” .
+
Without adding the Disk the installation of the driver is flawed under Windows, as driver installation of an not plugged in Hardware does not works.
** Select the Browse button and navigate to the driver CD
+
 
** Select the appropriate folder for your guest version/architecture.
+
=== Tested guest OS ===
* Click Next to begin the install.You will get a prompt warning about the driver not being signed. Go ahead and select “Continue Anyway”.
+
 
 +
* Windows 2003 r2 32 bit guest
 +
* Windows 2000 server sp4
 +
* Windows 7 and newer should work
 +
* Windows Server 2008 and newer should work
 +
 
 +
=== Setup Steps ===
 +
 
 +
* Prerequisite: An installed running Windows OS and the [[#Download|VirtIO driver ISO]]
 +
* insert the VirtIO ISO into the VMs CDROM Drive.
 +
* add a small (1GB) SCSI (with ''Options -> SCSI Controller Typ: VirtIO'') or VirtIO Block disk to the VM, you can use the PVE WebUI.
 +
* The disk should get hot plugged. If not, you need to reboot the VM.
 +
* Window should detect the new disk has a new unknown device and ask you for its drivers. If it doesn't, open the Device Manager, there should be an unknown device
 +
** Right-click this entry and select "Update Driver Software"
 +
** Select No when the wizard asks you to search for the driver software (online)
 +
** Select "Install from a list of specific location"
 +
** Use the Browse button and navigate to the driver CDROM
 +
** Normally selecting the CDROMs top directory (e.g. ''D:'') is enough on newer Windows versions.
 +
** If that doesn't work select the appropriate folder for your guest version/architecture manually (use vioscsi for SCSI and vioblk for VirtIO)
 +
* Click Next to begin the install.You may get a warning about the driver not being signed on older Windows Versions, select “Continue Anyway”.
 
* Finish then driver installation
 
* Finish then driver installation
  
You should now be able to enter "disk management", from windows, and initalize and format the temporary virtio disk (this is really not necessary but it will prove you that the driver is installed and running)  
+
You should now be able to enter Windows "Disk Management" and format the temporary SCSI/VirtIO disk (this is not necessary, it just proves that the driver is installed and working).
  
('''Note''': doing this on windows 2000 could show a strange, but apparently safe, behaviour: in the "disk management" control panel, you may see something like 8 times the drives you actually have!!! In fact, if you add 1 virtio drive, it shows 8 drives, but it's actually the same, repeated. You can in fact "sign" just the first, and then see that all "duplicated" drives are signed as well. However, the drives seems to behave and perform very well indeed. I signed, created partition, formatted, just  on the first one, with no side effects, up to now. In "My computer" you will see just 1 disk, anyway.)
+
('''Legacy Note''': Windows 2000 may report each disk 8 times in disk management, just install and use the first of each 8-tuple. In "My computer" you should see each disk only once.)
  
Now, Windows system has the virtio driver installed, and we need to convert all of its previous (IDE) system disks to virtio.
+
Windows has now the VirtIO SCSI/Block driver installed, and we need to re attach the VM disks as SCSI or virtio.
* Shut down the VM and, from PVE and:
+
* Shut down the VM and remove the temporary Disk (Remove it once to mark it unused and remove the unused to delete it entirely)
** remove (from the vm, not from disk) all the (IDE) disk it had previoulsy, and
+
* Detach all the disks you want to use as Virtio SCSI/Block, do this by "Removing" the disk. This will '''not''' delete the disk but mark them as "unused disks"
** re-add them, in the same order, as virtio disks
+
* reattach them by double-clicking the unused disk entries (or use the Edit button) here select SCSI for VirtIO SCSI or VirtIO (SCSI virtio disks (do this by clicking the "Edit" button for each of the "unused" disks that were previously "IDE" disks)
** Make shure that the primary boot device is still the old (IDE) boot disk, through PVE web interface.
+
* '''Important''': Fix up the ''Boot Order'' under the VMs ''Option'' tab. Make sure that the primary boot device is still the old boot disk.
* Boot again the VM and log in as a local administrator
+
* Now you can start the VM again, it should use the new better disk controllers now.
* Window should detect it has new unknown devices and ask you for the drivers
+
* If the VM does not boots you can detach and re attach the Disks as IDE, ensure that you do not missed a step here and eventually ask the Proxmox VE community for help.
** You should have the option to use again the ISO mounted in the CD drive
 
** You should also be able to tell windows to use "current" drivers, it now already has.
 
** You don't need to initialize/format these drives, of course :-)
 
  
 
After finishing, through PVE web interface, you can:
 
After finishing, through PVE web interface, you can:
* remove the first, temporary, virtio disk (if you don't need that more space on Windows)
+
* remove the temporary VirtIO disk if you haven't already done this and don't need it anymore
 
* remove the ISO mounted as CD device
 
* remove the ISO mounted as CD device
  
===During windows installation===
+
== Setup During Windows Installation ==
  
You can add the block drivers during install by manually adding a virtual floppy drive (vfd) to the system for the initial install as follows (thanks to meto & user100 in the forum).
+
Download the VirtIO drivers as described above.
  
First you need the virtio drivers from RedHat that can be found here: http://alt.fedoraproject.org/pub/alt/virtio-win/latest/images/bin/
+
Set the drive type to SCSI (preferred) or VirtIO and the Network also to VirtIO for improved performance.
If you are doing VIRTIO for network (recommended), grab the ISO file as well as the vfd file.
+
Add a second IDE CDROM drive, in the first mount the Windows installer ISO and in the second the VirtIO driver ISO.
  
Copy the vfd file onto the PM Host server or somewhere where it can be access from the PM Host server.
+
Startup the VM and the Installation process. When you arrive at the Disk/Partition selection you won't see a Disk because the driver aren't loaded.
 +
Click on the ''Load Driver'' button and then ''Browse''. In the file browser select the second CDROM drive with the VirtIO drivers and navigate to the vioscsi/WINVERSION/amd64 (or x86 if you have a 32 bit system) and click ''OK''. RedHat driver should show up in the ''Driver Installer'' click next to install them. Repeat the process for other VirtIO driver (e.g. network, qxl, ...).
  
When you create the VM, set the drive type to virtio and complete the rest of the settings.
+
The Disks should now show up and you can continue with the installation process as usual.
  
Start the system from the PROXMOX interface, but don't bother with the VNC console at this stage.
 
  
In an ssh session to the PM Host server (for your Win KVM), find the KVM process you just started by filtering on your VMID
+
=== Old VFD Method ===
  
  # ps ax | grep kvm | grep <VMID>
+
'''Note''': This is kept for legacy reasons, newer Windows versions (XP and newer) should use the above menthod.
  
You need to copy the line from the output for your VM beginning from "/usr/bin/kvm". Make sure you grab the whole line except the process ID, etc.
+
You can add the block drivers during install by manually adding a virtual floppy drive (vfd) and a second IDE CDROM Drive (for network VirtIO) to the VM for the initial install (thanks to meto & user100 in the forum).
  
Stop your VM from the PROXMOX interface
+
Download the VirtIO drivers as described above, upload VFD (for disks) and the ISO (for network) to PVE.
  
In your ssh session paste the copied line then add the floppy drive option : -fda /where/you/put/the/file/virtio-win-<version>.vfd
+
Use:
 +
qm set <VMID> -args '-fda /where/you/put/the/file/virtio-win-<VERSION>.vfd'
 +
to add the VFD as virtual floppy to the VM.
  
As an example this restarts a ''created'' KVM on my system with the floppy installed
+
Now start the VM and open the console. The standard boot sequence for a new KVM seems to be HDD - Floppy - CD, you can change this but it's just as easy to reboot using the Ctrl-Alt-Del button in the console, use F12 to bring up a boot selection window & boot from CD.
 
 
  # /usr/bin/kvm -monitor unix:/var/run/qemu-server/1086.mon,server,nowait -vnc unix:/var/run/qemu-server/1086.vnc,password -pidfile /var/run/qemu-server/1086.pid
 
    -daemonize -usbdevice tablet -name Win2K3_Base -smp sockets=1,cores=1 -nodefaults -boot menu=on -vga cirrus -tdf -localtime -rtc-td-hack -k en-us
 
    -drive file=/mnt/pve/ISO/WIN_2K3_SP2.iso,if=ide,index=2,media=cdrom -drive file=/var/lib/vz/images/1086/vm-1086-disk-1.qcow2,if=virtio,index=0,boot=on
 
    -m 512 -netdev type=tap,id=vlan0d0,ifname=vmtab1086i0d0,script=/var/lib/qemu-server/bridge-vlan -device virtio-net-pci,mac=2A:D2:74:78:2E:E1,netdev=vlan0d0
 
      ''-fda /mnt/pve/ISO/virtio-win-1.1.16.vfd''
 
 
 
Once you enter your command the KVM will start & you will see the system "running" in the PROXMOX interface. Now open the console. The standard boot sequence for a new KVM seems to be HDD - Floppy - CD, you can change this but it's just as easy to reboot using the Ctrl-Alt-Del button in the console, use F12 to bring up a boot selection window & boot from CD.
 
  
 
Once windows starts to load, press F6 to get it to look for extra drivers to load. It will automatically load the floppy & away you go.
 
Once windows starts to load, press F6 to get it to look for extra drivers to load. It will automatically load the floppy & away you go.
  
Note that the virtio drivers aren't windows logo signed so you need to tell the system to continue to load the drivers.  
+
Note that older VirtIO drivers aren't signed by Windows, so you need to tell the system to continue to load the drivers on a warning.  
  
 
More information on floppy drives can be found here : http://www.linux-kvm.com/content/block-driver-updates-install-drivers-during-windows-installation
 
More information on floppy drives can be found here : http://www.linux-kvm.com/content/block-driver-updates-install-drivers-during-windows-installation
Line 95: Line 102:
 
And in the forum here : http://forum.proxmox.com/threads/3711-Floppy-support-hack
 
And in the forum here : http://forum.proxmox.com/threads/3711-Floppy-support-hack
  
=Links to similar pages=
+
= See also =
 
+
* [[Windows VirtIO Drivers]]
 
* [[Paravirtualized Network Drivers for Windows]]
 
* [[Paravirtualized Network Drivers for Windows]]
 
+
* [[Dynamic Memory Management]]
  
 
[[Category: HOWTO]]
 
[[Category: HOWTO]]
 +
[[Category: Qemu/KVM]]

Latest revision as of 07:42, 29 March 2017

Introduction

In order to improve disk performance, special paravirtualized block drivers can be installed in Windows guests. You have to download and install those drivers in the VM, as Windows does not provides them by default.

Yellowpin.svg Note: Proxmox recommends using SCSI with VirtIO SCSI as SCSI Controller Type for VM disks, to have the most features and best performance.

VirtIO block may get deprecated in the future.

Download

You can download the latest stable Windows VirtIO drivers from: https://fedorapeople.org/groups/virt/virtio-win/direct-downloads/stable-virtio/virtio-win.iso Older Windows Versions may sometimes need older VirtIO drivers. See Windows VirtIO Drivers for more info about the change log, guest OS compatibility and other useful VirtIO guest devices.

Upload the ISO through the Proxmox VE WebUI: Select a Storage which allows ISO images in the PVE WebUI and switch to Content tab where you can use the "upload" button on the menu bar.

You may also copy the ISO manually onto a PVE configured storage.

Installation

The goal to use VirtIO SCSI or Block (SCSI is recommended) to improve the performance and available features of (Windows) VMs. The way we do this depends if we want to change an already installed and running Windows VM or if we want to set this up during a Windows installation.

Setup On Running Windows

Here we add a temporary disk with the new wanted disk controller to the VM and install the respective drivers. The Windows OS in your VM knows nothing about VirtIO drivers, so you can't simply stop the VM, change the disk to Vrtio-SCSI or VirtIO and reboot. You have to force Windows to install VirtIO drivers during it runs. To do this we add a small temporary SCSI-VirtIO or VirtIO disk to the VM and install its drivers explicitly. Without adding the Disk the installation of the driver is flawed under Windows, as driver installation of an not plugged in Hardware does not works.

Tested guest OS

  • Windows 2003 r2 32 bit guest
  • Windows 2000 server sp4
  • Windows 7 and newer should work
  • Windows Server 2008 and newer should work

Setup Steps

  • Prerequisite: An installed running Windows OS and the VirtIO driver ISO
  • insert the VirtIO ISO into the VMs CDROM Drive.
  • add a small (1GB) SCSI (with Options -> SCSI Controller Typ: VirtIO) or VirtIO Block disk to the VM, you can use the PVE WebUI.
  • The disk should get hot plugged. If not, you need to reboot the VM.
  • Window should detect the new disk has a new unknown device and ask you for its drivers. If it doesn't, open the Device Manager, there should be an unknown device
    • Right-click this entry and select "Update Driver Software"
    • Select No when the wizard asks you to search for the driver software (online)
    • Select "Install from a list of specific location"
    • Use the Browse button and navigate to the driver CDROM
    • Normally selecting the CDROMs top directory (e.g. D:) is enough on newer Windows versions.
    • If that doesn't work select the appropriate folder for your guest version/architecture manually (use vioscsi for SCSI and vioblk for VirtIO)
  • Click Next to begin the install.You may get a warning about the driver not being signed on older Windows Versions, select “Continue Anyway”.
  • Finish then driver installation

You should now be able to enter Windows "Disk Management" and format the temporary SCSI/VirtIO disk (this is not necessary, it just proves that the driver is installed and working).

(Legacy Note: Windows 2000 may report each disk 8 times in disk management, just install and use the first of each 8-tuple. In "My computer" you should see each disk only once.)

Windows has now the VirtIO SCSI/Block driver installed, and we need to re attach the VM disks as SCSI or virtio.

  • Shut down the VM and remove the temporary Disk (Remove it once to mark it unused and remove the unused to delete it entirely)
  • Detach all the disks you want to use as Virtio SCSI/Block, do this by "Removing" the disk. This will not delete the disk but mark them as "unused disks"
  • reattach them by double-clicking the unused disk entries (or use the Edit button) here select SCSI for VirtIO SCSI or VirtIO (SCSI virtio disks (do this by clicking the "Edit" button for each of the "unused" disks that were previously "IDE" disks)
  • Important: Fix up the Boot Order under the VMs Option tab. Make sure that the primary boot device is still the old boot disk.
  • Now you can start the VM again, it should use the new better disk controllers now.
  • If the VM does not boots you can detach and re attach the Disks as IDE, ensure that you do not missed a step here and eventually ask the Proxmox VE community for help.

After finishing, through PVE web interface, you can:

  • remove the temporary VirtIO disk if you haven't already done this and don't need it anymore
  • remove the ISO mounted as CD device

Setup During Windows Installation

Download the VirtIO drivers as described above.

Set the drive type to SCSI (preferred) or VirtIO and the Network also to VirtIO for improved performance. Add a second IDE CDROM drive, in the first mount the Windows installer ISO and in the second the VirtIO driver ISO.

Startup the VM and the Installation process. When you arrive at the Disk/Partition selection you won't see a Disk because the driver aren't loaded. Click on the Load Driver button and then Browse. In the file browser select the second CDROM drive with the VirtIO drivers and navigate to the vioscsi/WINVERSION/amd64 (or x86 if you have a 32 bit system) and click OK. RedHat driver should show up in the Driver Installer click next to install them. Repeat the process for other VirtIO driver (e.g. network, qxl, ...).

The Disks should now show up and you can continue with the installation process as usual.


Old VFD Method

Note: This is kept for legacy reasons, newer Windows versions (XP and newer) should use the above menthod.

You can add the block drivers during install by manually adding a virtual floppy drive (vfd) and a second IDE CDROM Drive (for network VirtIO) to the VM for the initial install (thanks to meto & user100 in the forum).

Download the VirtIO drivers as described above, upload VFD (for disks) and the ISO (for network) to PVE.

Use:

qm set <VMID> -args '-fda /where/you/put/the/file/virtio-win-<VERSION>.vfd'

to add the VFD as virtual floppy to the VM.

Now start the VM and open the console. The standard boot sequence for a new KVM seems to be HDD - Floppy - CD, you can change this but it's just as easy to reboot using the Ctrl-Alt-Del button in the console, use F12 to bring up a boot selection window & boot from CD.

Once windows starts to load, press F6 to get it to look for extra drivers to load. It will automatically load the floppy & away you go.

Note that older VirtIO drivers aren't signed by Windows, so you need to tell the system to continue to load the drivers on a warning.

More information on floppy drives can be found here : http://www.linux-kvm.com/content/block-driver-updates-install-drivers-during-windows-installation

And in the forum here : http://forum.proxmox.com/threads/3711-Floppy-support-hack

See also